Constitution & Bylaws (IADR)
IADR Constitution & Bylaws
Adopted March 24, 1957; Revised through July 2, 2008
International Association for Dental Research
Table of Contents
This organization is named: International Association for Dental Research herein referred to as the IADR or the Association.
The Association has been established to promote research in all aspects of oral and related sciences, to encourage development of improved methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.
This Association is a non-profit corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States of America. If the corporation shall be dissolved at any time, no part of its funds or property shall be distributed to its members; but, after payment of all indebtedness of the corporation, its surplus funds shall be used for dental research in such manner as the then-governing body of the Association shall determine.
Section 1. ORGANIZATION
(A) REGIONS. The IADR Board, with the approval of Council, shall organize the Divisions and non-Divisional Sections into Regions for purposes of more effective and efficient delivery of IADR member services. Each Region will have a Regional Board of Directors as defined in the Bylaws.
(B) DIVISIONS. Members of the Association in any nation or group of geographically related nations, with the approval of the Council, may organize a Division after maintaining Section status for one year and having demonstrated the ability to conduct scientific and business sessions during this period. A Division will be comprised of a minimum number of members as specified in the Bylaws.
(C) SECTIONS. Ten or more members within a Divisional area may, with the approval of the Division, organize a Section (except the Institutional Section) for the advancement of the objectives of the Division and the Association. In the event the locality or localities are not within the limits of a Division, a non-Divisional Section may be organized with ten or more members of the Association upon approval by the Council.
(D) INSTITUTIONAL SECTION. One and only one Section-at-Large shall include all Institutional Members of the Association, and membership in the Institutional Section shall be the only membership in the Association permitted for institutions. Each Institutional Section Member will designate one representative from its institution to represent it in the Institutional Section. Institutional members will have representation in the Council through one Councilor elected by the Institutional Section. Institutional members will have no other voting or nominating privileges. The representatives of
Institutional Section Members must be members of the Association, in accordance with the Bylaws.
Section 2. MANAGEMENT. The affairs of the Divisions and Sections shall be managed in conformity with the Constitution and Bylaws of the Association and of the related Division.
Section 3. SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION. Approval of a Division or Section may be revoked or suspended for non-maintenance of the minimum number of members required for formation, failing to hold a meeting for two consecutive years, failing to report its activities and its membership, non-compliance with the Association’s Constitution, or for other good cause shown. Suspension or revocation will be determined at an Annual Meeting of Council, by a two-thirds vote of the Council members present and voting. The Division or Section threatened with suspension or revocation shall be so notified by the Executive Director at least 120 days before the Annual Meeting, and shall be entitled to appear before Council in the form of a delegation of members or Officers, by representation, or by submission of a written statement to defend its right to exist.
Section 1. GROUPS. Members of the Association interested in any scientific branch or professional field related to dental science, with the approval of the Council, may organize a Group to further the objectives of the Association. A Group will be comprised of a minimum number of members as specified by the Bylaws.
Section 2. GROUP CHAPTERS. Ten or more members of a Group within a Division or a non-Divisional Section, with the approval of the related Division or Section, may organize a Group Chapter for the advancement of the objectives of the Association and the Division or Section.
Section 3. MANAGEMENT. The affairs of Groups and Group Chapters shall be managed in conformity with the Constitution and Bylaws of the Association and of the related Division.
Section 4. SUSPENSION AND REVOCATION. Approval of a Group or Group Chapter may be suspended or revoked for non-maintenance of the minimum number of members required for formation, failing to hold a meeting for two consecutive years, failing to report its activities and its membership, non-compliance with the Association’s Constitution, or for other good cause shown. Suspension or revocation will be determined at the Annual Meeting of the Council, by a two-thirds vote of the Council members present and voting. The Group or Chapter threatened with suspension or revocation shall be so notified by the Executive Director at least 120 days before the annual General Session, and shall be entitled to appear before Council in the form of a delegation of members or Officers, by representation, or by submission of a written statement to defend its right to exist.
Section 1. ELIGIBILITY
(A) INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP. Any individual, without any considerations of color, caste, race, religion, age, gender, national or ethnic origin, or disability, who is interested in Dental Science and Dental Research shall be eligible for membership in this Association, as set forth in the Bylaws.
(B) INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP. Any educational institution, research institution or center, government agency, or industry engaged in dental or dentally related research shall be eligible for membership in a Division and/or in an at-large Institutional Section, subject to the eligibility requirements and approval of the Division or the Association and the limitations of Article IV C. The formation of an Institutional Section within a Division shall be optional with the Division.
Section 2. ACTIVATION OF MEMBERSHIP. Any individual eligible for membership under the Constitution and Bylaws and whose membership credentials have been found acceptable to the respective Division or Section shall become a member of the Association. Applications may be approved by the Membership and Recruitment Committee on a periodic basis. New members may immediately receive a probationary membership upon submission of application and payment, and will become official members upon review of their application.
Section 3. SUSPENSION OR TERMINATION.
(A) Membership may be terminated automatically by a member upon delivery of a formal notice to the Executive Director of that member’s resignation.
(B) The membership of any member may be terminated or suspended for reasons of non-payment of dues, proven scientific misconduct, non-compliance with the Association’s Constitution, or for other good cause shown. Termination of membership other than for non-payment of dues will be determined at an Annual Meeting of Council, by a two-thirds vote of the Council members present and voting. The person whose membership is threatened with termination shall be so notified by the Executive Director at least 120 days before the annual General Session, and shall be entitled to appear before Council in person, by representation, or by submission of a written statement to defend his/her right to membership.
Section 1. OFFICERS. The Officers of the Association shall be a President, President-elect, Vice-president, Immediate Past President, Treasurer, Executive Director, and Editor. The Executive Director will also serve as Secretary of the Association. The Vice-president shall be elected from among the active members by ballot of the membership. The incumbent President-elect and Vice-president shall be advanced automatically to the next higher office at the end of their then-current terms of office. The Executive Director, the Treasurer, and the Editor shall be appointed by the Council.
(A) TERM OF OFFICE. The terms of the President, President-elect, and Vice-president shall be one Association year; for the Treasurer it shall be three Association years. The terms of the Executive Director and Editor shall be five years, except that under special circumstances either may be appointed for a shorter period.
(B) TENURE OF OFFICE. Each Officer shall serve until the installation of his duly-elected successor.
(C) VACANCIES. An ad interim vacancy in any office shall be filled according to the rules outlined in the Bylaws.
Section 2. HONORARY OFFICERS. Honorary Officers may be elected by the Council from nominations made by its own members or by Divisions, Sections, or Groups, for a period of time to be determined by Council.
Section 3. BOARD OF DIRECTORS. The Board of Directors of the Association shall consist of the President, Immediate Past President, President-elect, Vice-president, Treasurer, Editor, Executive Director, and an additional Regional Board Member to be selected by each Region to serve a three-year term. The Executive Director and Editor shall have no vote.
Section 4. QUALIFICATIONS. All Officers and officials of the Association, the Divisions, the Sections, and the Groups shall be Members of the Association. An elected officer of the IADR shall have had service as a Division, Section, or Group Officer, or as a Councilor, or as a Committee Chair or Committee Member.
Section 1. NOMINATIONS BY THE COUNCIL. One or more nominations for Vice-president shall be made by the Council, and announcement of the nomination(s) shall be mailed to each member of the Association not fewer than four months before the date of the next annual General Session, and in a form to indicate that other nominations may be made by petition.
Section 2. NOMINATIONS BY PETITION. Additional nominations may be made by petition signed by 25 members of the Association and received by the Executive Director not more than 45 days after the mailing of the announcement of the Council nominations.
Section 3. NOTICE OF NOMINATIONS. Before the next annual General Session, the nominations for Vice-president shall be sent by the Executive Director to all members of the Association on an official ballot for a vote by mail to be reported at that meeting. The nominations shall be sent no fewer than eight weeks before the due date for the return of the ballots to the Executive Director.
Section 4. ELECTION. A plurality of votes cast shall elect to each office, in accordance with the Bylaws.
Section 1. PERSONNEL. The Council of the Association shall consist of the President, the Immediate Past President, the President-elect, the Vice-president, the Executive Director, the Treasurer, the Editor, one or more Councilors from each Division, one Councilor from each Group, and a Councilor representing the Fédération Dentaire Internationale. The Executive Director, Editor, and FDI representative shall have no vote.
Section 2. DIVISION REPRESENTATION. For the purpose of representation on the Council, each Division shall designate or elect Councilors and be represented as follows:
(A) A Division of 99 or fewer Association members shall have one Councilor.
(B) A Division of 100 to 999 Association members shall have two Councilors.
(C) A Division of 1,000 to 1,999 Association members shall have three Councilors.
(D) A Division of 2,000 or more Association members shall have four Councilors.
Section 3. NON-DIVISIONAL SECTION REPRESENTATION. Each non-Divisional Section may be represented by a non-voting observer. If the Institutional Section acquires a minimum of ten members, it will be represented by one Councilor, who shall have one vote on Council.
Section 4. FÉDÉRATION DENTAIRE INTERNATIONALE REPRESENTATION. For the purpose of representation on the Council, the Fédération Dentaire Internationale shall designate or elect one Councilor to serve for a period of at least one year. This Councilor must also be a member of the Association. The FDI Councilor will have no vote on Council.
Section 5. DUTIES OF THE COUNCIL. The Council shall be the governing body of the Association.
Section 6. INTERIM ACTION. During periods between meetings of the Council, the executive management of Council affairs shall be by the Board of Directors.
Section 7. REGIONAL REPRESENTATION. Each Region, as defined in Article IV, Section 1 (A), shall be represented by a voting member in Council.
Section 1. DUES. At each annual General Session, the Council shall determine and announce the amount of the annual Association dues and the assessment for official publication(s). If no annual General Session is held, this function shall be exercised by the Board of Directors.
Section 2. EXPENDITURES. Funds of the Association may be expended only on general or specific authorization of the Council, except that if the Annual Meeting of the Council is not held, the Board of Directors also may authorize expenditure of funds. The Board of Directors also may authorize expenditure of funds to defray expenses of the Association not foreseen at the time of the annual General Session.
Section 3. ACCOUNTS. All accounts of assets of the Association shall be audited annually by a Certified Public Accountant.
Section 4. REPORTS. All Officers collecting, disbursing, or holding in trust assets of the Association shall report annually to the Council and the Association in written form.
Section 1. ASSOCIATION. The Association shall meet for the exchange of scientific information at least once each year unless prevented by circumstances not under the control of the members.
Section 2. COUNCIL. The Council shall meet annually in conjunction with the annual meeting, which shall be known as the General Session of the Association.
Section 3. SPECIAL.
(A) Special meetings of the Council or of the Association may be convened by the Board of Directors or the Council.
(B) Upon petition from at least 50 members of the Association at least two weeks prior to the annual General Session, the Executive Director shall arrange for the Association to meet in general assembly during the General Session.
Section 4. DIVISIONS AND GROUPS. Each Division and Group shall meet at least once each year unless prevented by circumstances not under the control of the members.
The quorum for the Council shall be as stated by the Bylaws.
(A) NAME. The official publication of the Association is the Journal of Dental Research.
(B)MANAGEMENT. An IADR/ADR Publications Committee (whose membership is described in the Bylaws) shall oversee the affairs of the Journal of Dental Research and other joint publications.
Section 1. PROPOSAL. A proposed amendment to the Constitution, formally endorsed by at least 50 members and accompanied by a statement of reasons for adoption, may be presented at any Annual Meeting of the Council, and thereupon becomes a special order of business for a vote of the membership by mail prior to the succeeding annual General Session. Proposed amendments to the Constitution shall normally be reviewed by the Constitution Committee before presentation to Council.
Section 2. VOTING PROCEDURE. The Executive Director shall mail to each member of the Association not less than two months before the next annual General Session of the Association: (a) a copy of the amendment, (b) the stated reasons for its adoption, (c) a ballot for a vote on the amendment, and (d) a copy of this Article XIV of this Constitution. The results shall be reported at the annual General Session.
Section 3. ADOPTION. A proposed amendment shall be adopted by a vote of not less than two-thirds of the members voting on the question, and shall become a part of the Constitution at the close of the annual General Session at which it is adopted.
Bylaws and amendments to Bylaws may be proposed at any Annual Meeting of the Council and may be adopted at the same meeting by a vote of two-thirds of the members present and voting, the Bylaws and amendments taking effect at the close of the meeting. Proposed Bylaws and amendments to Bylaws shall normally be reviewed by the Constitution Committee before presentation to Council.
Adopted March 24, 1957; Revised through April 4, 2009
SECTION A. MEMBERSHIP
1. APPLICATION. Applications for individual membership shall be approved by the Membership and Recruitment Committee on a periodic basis. New members may immediately receive a probationary membership upon submission of application and payment, and will become official members upon review of their application.
A member residing within the geographical area of a Division or non-Divisional Section must be a member of a Division or non-Divisional Section, must comply with the Constitution of that Division or non-Divisional Section, and must pay dues to that Division or non-Divisional Section, if applicable.
2. MEMBERSHIP CATEGORIES. Article VI, Section 1(A), of the Constitution shall be interpreted as follows:
(A) MEMBER: A person who is conducting, has conducted, or who is interested in the furtherance of research in any branch of science or in fields related to dental science. Members shall have the full rights and privileges of membership and are eligible to vote and to hold office in the Association.
(B) AFFILIATE MEMBER: A person who is not involved in research but has an interest in keeping up with the latest research, e.g., a practicing dentist or a member of the general public. Affiliate members receive limited benefits.
(C) STUDENT MEMBER: A person who is a student currently enrolled in a recognized academic institution who does not hold an academic appointment and who is interested in dental research. Student members must become Members when eligible or be dropped from membership. Individuals may be classified at the Student level for no more than 8 years. The Student Member shall have all the rights and privileges of membership but shall have no vote.
(D) RETIRED: A person who has been a member of the Association in good standing for at least 25 years, and no longer works on a full-time basis for remuneration. The Retired Member shall have all the rights and privileges of membership but shall receive the Journal of Dental Research only upon payment of the Journal subscription fee.
(E) HONORARY MEMBERSHIP: The Association and Divisions may elect as Honorary Members persons who are not members of the Association. Honorary Members shall normally be selected on the basis of the candidate’s significant contribution to, or support of, dental research.
(1) One Honorary Membership may be bestowed each year by unanimous recommendation of the three most recent living Past Presidents of the Association. Such Honorary Members shall have all the rights and privileges of membership and may, on request, receive complimentary copies of the Journal of Dental Research.
(2) Honorary Membership shall not be conferred posthumously.
(3) Divisional Honorary Members shall have all the rights and privileges within the Division as determined by that Division. An Honorary Member of a Division, if not already a member of the Association, may become a member of the Association only if eligible and in the manner provided in the Constitution and Bylaws of the Association.
(F) INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP: (Article VI[B]): On payment of Institutional dues, each institution will be entitled to one membership within the Association, subject to the limitations of Article IV(C).
3. REGIONS, DIVISIONS, SECTIONS, AND GROUPS.
(a) Divisions of the IADR can be initiated by a minimum of 50 Members of the Association. Once formed, Divisions should strive to increase their membership. Council will review Divisions biennially. Divisions not demonstrating successful leadership risk having Division status revoked per Article IV. Section 3.
(b) Groups of the IADR can be initiated by a minimum of 50 Members of the Association. Once formed, Groups should strive to increase their membership. Council will review Groups biennially. Groups not demonstrating successful leadership risk having Group status revoked per Article V. Section 4.
(c) Membership in a Divisional Section or IADR Group shall be optional. Sections, Groups, and Group Chapters will include Members, Affiliate Members, Student Members, and IADR Retired Members.
(d) Only Members and IADR Retired Members of the Association shall have voting privileges on matters concerning the Association and be eligible to hold office in a Region, Division, Section, or Group.
(e) Copies of the Constitutions of the Regions, Divisions, Sections, and Groups should be lodged with the Executive Director and updated as necessary.
(f) All Divisions, Sections, and Groups should adapt the Principles of the IADR Code of Ethics to their own Code of Ethics.
(g) Each Division and Non-Divisional Section of an IADR defined Regional shall be represented on a Regional Board of Directors. The composition of each Regional Board of Directors shall be defined in their won Constitution and Bylaws as approved by the IADR Board.
(h) Each Regional Board of Directors shall appoint a Regional Board Member to serve a three year term on the IADR Board of Directors.
4. TERMINATION OF MEMBERSHIP.
(a) Membership may be terminated automatically by a member upon delivery of a formal notice of resignation to the Executive Director.
(b) Members are terminated from membership after 90 days of non-payment of dues.
1. TERMINATED MEMBERSHIP. Annual dues for the year in which membership is terminated by a member or by the Association prior to the date of the annual General Session shall be refunded, or, if unpaid, shall not be demanded. No dues will be refunded after the date of the annual General Session.
2. SUSPENSION OF DUES. The Board may in any year suspend the dues of a member upon request from the member including a motivation for the request.
3. RIGHTS. Rights of membership shall not be affected if a member is excused from paying dues.
1. INSTALLATION. At the annual General Session of the Association, an appropriate ceremony of installation shall inaugurate the term of service of each Officer of the Association.
(a) The duties of the Officers shall be those ordinarily associated with the official titles, and such other duties as the Association or the Council may assign.
(b) In the event that an officer vacates his/her office prior to completion of his/her term of office, ad interim assumes responsibility as follows: President – Immediate Past President; President-elect – Vice-president; Vice-president – Vice-president-elect; Immediate Past President – President; Treasurer – to be decided by the Board, until a new appointment can be made; Executive Director – Deputy Executive Director, until a new appointment can be made.
(c) The Treasurer shall maintain surveillance over the Association’s finances and assist the Finance Committee in the development of budgets. The Treasurer shall be chair of the Finance Committee.
Upon completion of his/her term, the incumbent will become the Immediate Past Treasurer and will assist the incoming Treasurer as necessary for one year at the Treasurers’ and Joint Finance Committee Meetings as an ex officio (non-voting) member.
(d) In addition to his/her other duties, the Executive Director shall provide the Board of Directors with written quarterly financial statements in a timely manner.
(e) Each Officer shall report annually in writing to the Council on the conduct of his/her office.
(f) The Council shall report annually to the Association on the nature and scope of its proceedings.
3. BONDING. Officers and employees collecting, disbursing, or holding in trust assets of the Association shall be bonded by a reliable surety company in such an amount as shall be determined by the Council.
4. ELECTION OF VICE-PRESIDENT. Candidates may compete for the office of Vice-president only twice.
1. Appointments to standing committees shall be made usually by the President-elect. Appointments to ad hoc committees shall be made usually by the President. The Council or Board of Directors may designate membership for committees created by them for special functions.
2. STANDING COMMITTEES. The following standing committees shall be appointed:
(a) Annual Session Committee of four members (IADR President-elect [Chair], President, Vice-president, and Executive Director) to manage the overall planning for the General Session program, including the timing and sequence of activities, assist in the identification of potential meeting sites, establishing the theme, symposia, workshops, etc., for the annual General Session. Additional members may include (a) representative(s) from the Local Organizing Committee and the host/sponsoring Division(s).
(b) Constitution Committee of nine members to review the Constitution and Bylaws, advise the Council regarding essential revisions, and monitor compliance of the activities of the Association with the Constitution.
(c) Ethics in Dental Research Committee of five members who have expertise in ethics to disseminate the IADR Code of Ethics to Divisional Committees on Ethics and to sponsor education programs through symposia and workshops on ethical conduct in research. The Ethics Committee shall also serve in an advisory capacity to the IADR Board on ethical issues.
(d) Fellowships Committee of six members to advertise, receive, and judge applications for fellowships; recommend policy or policy changes on newly proposed or currently sponsored fellowships; and assist in raising funds for new fellowships.
(e) Finance Committee composed of the Treasurer as chair and three members of the Board of Directors to develop budgets and make recommendations to the Council on financial matters. The Finance Committee will meet at least once a year between annual General Sessions.
(f) Awards Review Committee of ten members to arrange the program of the Hatton Competition at the annual General Session and to select winners to receive the awards. The Awards Review Committee will also review the Research in Prevention Travel Award abstracts and select recipients before the annual General Session.
(g) IADR/AADR Gies Award Committee of nine members to select annually the best paper(s) published in the IADR/AADR jointly owned Journal of Dental Research, one in each of the three categories, Biological, Biomaterials & Bioengineering and Clinical.
(h) Membership and Recruitment Committee of eleven members to develop plans and strategies for the recruitment of new members and retention of existing members of the Association. This committee will also consider the development of programs to attract new members and Sections in countries where IADR has not been very active.
(i) Nominating Committee of seven members to advise the Council on the selection of nominees for the various offices of the Association. One of the members shall be the Immediate Past President without privilege of serving as chair.
(j) Regional Development Committee of ten members to advise the Board of Directors on the management and direction of the Regional Development Program through evaluation and selection of proposals from Divisions/Sections to undertake programs on oral health research and clinical applications thereof in and for the benefit of developing regions of the world.
(k) Science Awards Committee consisting of a chair and members in such number as to equal the number of science awards. The function of the Committee is to make recommendations to the Board on (a) administration of the science awards program and (b) the selection of the Distinguished Scientist Awards recipients. The chair shall serve for three years, and the other members of the Committee will serve for two years. Each, excluding the chair, will chair a subcommittee for one of the science awards.
(l) Tellers Committee of three members to tally the votes of the membership of both IADR and AADR for elected positions, Constitutional amendments, and any other such business as shall be determined by Council.
(m) Young Investigator Award Committee of nine members, each serving a three-year term, to ensure proper representation of the various disciplines for this award.
3. JOINT PUBLICATIONS
(a) MEMBERS OF THE IADR/AADR PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE.
The IADR/AADR Publications Committee’s role is to review the quality and financial status of the Journal of Dental Research and other journals owned jointly by IADR/AADR. Membership consists of: three representatives from IADR; three representatives from AADR; Immediate Past Presidents of IADR and AADR, who alternately serve as Chairs of the Committee; the IADR and AADR Treasurers; the Editors of the jointly owned journals. The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors(s) of all jointly owned journals and Executive Director shall serve as members without vote.
(b) THE IADR/AADR PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE will analyze and make recommendations regarding publication of all journals to the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors and the Executive Director and will report annually to the IADR and AADR Councils through the Joint Boards of Directors.
(c) TERM OF OFFICE OF APPOINTED/ELECTED MEMBERS. Each member shall be appointed or elected for a three-year period, the terms staggered so that one each from IADR and AADR is selected each year, except in case of vacancy. The Immediate Past President of IADR and AADR will serve for one year.
(d) REPORTS. Annually and at such other times that the Council, the Executive Director, or the Editor-in-Chief may direct, the Publications Committee shall report to the Council concerning the conduct of the joint publications.
4. TERMS OF APPOINTMENT TO COMMITTEES shall be three years unless otherwise stated in the Constitution or Bylaws. The terms shall be so staggered that new members are appointed each year, except in case of a vacancy.
1. GENERAL SESSIONS. The time and place of each annual General Session shall be determined by the Council.
2. SCIENTIFIC SESSIONS.
(a) The arrangements for the scientific program of each annual General Session of the Association shall be made in accordance with the instructions from the Association or the Council by an Annual Session Committee consisting of the President, the President-elect, the Vice-president, and the Executive Director. Additional members may include (a) representative(s) from the Local Organizing Committee and the host/sponsoring Division(s).
(b) The President-elect shall chair the Annual Session Committee.
3. REGISTRATION FEES. The Council shall determine the amount of the registration fees for the annual General Session. Members whose dues have not been paid through the current year will be required to pay the non-member fee.
SECTION F. QUORUM/RULES
1. COUNCIL. At any meeting of the Council, a quorum shall be comprised of at least one-half of the Council members, representing at least one-half of the Divisions existing at the time of the meeting, and provided notice of the meeting shall have been given in fact or mailed to all members at least 60 days prior to the date on which the meeting is called.
2. RULES. The Association shall operate under the rules of Parliamentary procedure as outlined in “Roberts’ Rules of Order”. In the event of a tied vote for an Officer position, the Council will determine the outcome by ballot at its annual meeting.
SECTION G. AUTHORIZED BANKS AND EXPENDITURES
Funds of the Association shall be deposited in a bank or banks, or invested in securities approved for the purpose by the Board of Directors. Authorized expenditures from the general funds of the Association shall be made by check, each of which must be signed by the President, the President-elect, the Vice-president, the Treasurer, or the Executive Director, provided each expenditure is within the limit of each budgeted item.
1. Members of this Association, for purposes of notice or other communications or actions, are those persons who are members according to the latest information possessed by the Executive Director at the time of mailing of the notice or communication, or at the time of the action.
2. Notice shall be considered to have been given to a member when written statement of the notice has been mailed to the member at the last address for the member known to the Executive Director at the time of the mailing.
3. In this Constitution and Bylaws, “mail” is understood to mean any form of communication from the Association to the members, including traditional mail and electronic mail.
4. The term “Joint Boards” is understood to mean the Board of Directors of IADR functioning jointly with the Board of Directors of AADR to carry out duties pertaining to the joint activities mentioned in this Constitution and Bylaws or otherwise agreed to.