Welcome to the 7th Annual research Day of the Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy
Venue: An Namuthajiyah Campus, King Fahad Road, Riyadh
Date: Saturday, 05 March 2016
About the Event

Since 2009 the Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy has sought to promote student and interns research by providing them with a platform to showcase their research.

In all probability our institution may indeed be the first health institution in the community to have a dedicated and sustained Research Day in its yearly calendar. We are proud of this and will strive to keep it this way.

The exhibitions today include students’ posters, video-clips, movies and art works. Some posters exhibited in the Halls. As a health institution, our research activities reflect quantitative and qualitative designs. The Research Center has always supported this approach. Also supported is the “team spirit” in research since no one person can do so much alone.
Message from the Rector
Once again this year, as I have stated during previous occasions, I am very pleased to welcome you today, March 5 2016, to the 7th Annual Research Day activities of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RcSDP). I am particularly pleased that our Research Day has evolved qualitatively from when it was conducted in the classroom by a group of students, supervisors and the Course Director to an institution-wide one involving all of our undergraduate and graduate students as well as interns in the two colleges.

This year, our Research Day has an added importance in that the Ministry of Education is officially interested in our activities which the Ministry advises should include activities we never included before. These are creative art work, educational video clips, video streams, webcasts, devices and inventions. This offers us the opportunity to competitively screen those of our participating students who would be recommended for further participation at the Kingdom’s national students’ scientific conference holding in November 2016.

I have also observed that our students continue to participate in other national and international conferences in both oral and poster presentations. This is gratifying and I hope the commitment to and the spirit of scientific inquiry will be evident in our graduates even when they are no longer with us in RCsDP.

I wish to end this welcome message by reminding you that a scientific research activity is really not completed until it is published in a respected Journal where peers can appreciate the research findings. Therefore I implore you, all the students, to try to publish your research outcome in respected Journals.

The Administration of RCsDP will always welcome suggestions on how to continually improve the quantity and quality of activities of the Annual Research Day of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy.

Please enjoy the Day’s activities.

Prof. Abdullah R. Al Shammery
Rector, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy
Male Abstract | Dentistry
M1 - Effect of Law Enforcement System (Saher) on Maxillofacial Injuries Caused by Road Traffic Accidents in Riyadh
AlGarni M, AlManea RS, Jeleudan WS, AlAjmi S, AlAseeri N
Background: Road traffic accidents are a common cause of death and injuries all around the world. However, Saudi Arabia has the highest number of deaths and injuries caused by RTA’s. The purpose of this study is to report the incidence, etiology, pattern, facial fracture and the associated injuries before and after the introducing of the LES

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted using the records of the Prince Sultan Military Medical City emergency room. Patterns and incidence of maxillofacial injuries after the introduction of the SAHER system were compared to the statistics from before the introduction system.

Results and Conclusion: It was observed that there was a change in the incidence and patterns of maxillofacial injuries after the introduction of the SAHER system. However, more research is needed to establish the exact cause for this change.
M2 - Protein Supplements Intake and their Effect on the Oral Health among Bodybuilders in Riyadh
Ansari SH, Al-Mozher M, Banakher A, Al-Ghamdi S, Al-Harthy M, Sibai J
Introduction: Protein supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Effect of creatine intake on oral health has not been investigated specifically; therefore we were unable to find related articles which could support our research. This study could add to the interest for those who are on protein supplements and may not be aware of its effects on oral health.

Materials and Methods: This is comparative clinical study, which targeted two groups of subjects. This is a pilot study and will utilize a total of 60 participants; 30 in each group. Both groups included bodybuilders but one group consisted of participants consuming protein supplements for a long time, whereas other group with bodybuilders without consuming protein supplements.

Results and Conclusion: Prevalence of gingival inflammation was higher in protein consumers. Difference in plaque index was not significant between two groups. DMFT index was significantly higher in protein consumers as compared with non protein consumers.
Male Abstract | Dentistry
M3 - Impact of Energy Drinks on the Manual Dexterity of Final Year Dental Students
AlAjmi SS AlAteeq MM Jeleudan WS Pani SC
Background: Today the consumption of energy drinks has become a widespread phenomenon among school and college students, with disturbing reports of high usage among college students in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there was a relationship between the consumption of energy drinks and the manual dexterity skills of final year dental students.

Methodology: Baseline caffeine consumption was identified by distributing the caffeine consumption questionnaire to all the final year students. Subjects with any history of renal disease were prevented from participation in the study. Dexterity was by asking subjects to prepare a box 1cmx1cmx1cm using a high speed handpiece (NSK, Japan) and a no.330 cutting bur. Each participant was allowed three attempts to cut the cavity in each test and the best block will be selected for assessment. Dexterity was evaluated before and after consumption of an energy drink. The time taken to complete the task and accuracy of the task were recorded and analyzed

Results and Conclusion: The results to the study showed that there consumption of both high caffeine energy drinks and the placebo soft drink resulted in some loss of dexterity. The Energy drink caused a significantly greater loss of dexterity than the placebo control
M4 - Combined Pharmacotherapy and Behavioral Alteration for Smoking Cessation
Binyahya FA, Alqabbaa LM, Alansary RD, Alrumaih AS, Kamel AMF*
Background and Aim: According to the American Lung Association smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States (US), causing over 438,000 deaths per year. It can cause or make worse a wide range of damaging health effects in children and adults, including lung cancer, respiratory infections and asthma. After all of these statistics, finding an effective smoking cessation program is very mandatory in order to reach a world free of smoking.

Methodology: Prior to the selection of the program, more than 30 recent articles have reviewed. The U.S Public Health Services, and UK Public Health Association protocols and recommendations were also reviewed. The tobacco Control Program of Saudi Ministry of Health was consulted for the most followed programs as well as smokers obligations and the available medications in Saudi Arabia.

Results and Conclusion: A simple and effective smoking cessation program is presented. It comprises both Pharmacotherapy and Behavioral Alterations.
Male Abstract | Dentistry
M5 - Dental Patients Perceptions and Knowledge On Tooth Bleaching
AlAmri M., AlAli MH, AlShamrani A., M,AbuKashab A, AbdulWahid A*, Hammad S.*
Aim: The main aim of the study is to assess the perceptions and knowledge on tooth bleaching among patients visiting various dental health care centers in Riyadh, KSA

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey based study was conducted at four dental health care centres in Riyadh. The survey was based on face to face interview which utilized a structured questionnaire. The data obtained was analysed utilizing frequency distribution and chi square test.

Results: No statistically significant relationship was found between knowledge / perception regarding teeth bleaching and age (p= 0.250), gender (p=0.189), ethnic group (p= 0.966), level of education (p= -0.843) or marital status (p= 0.552). 80% of the subjects were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, colour being the main reason

Conclusion: Majority of the patients were not aware about tooth bleaching as a treatment. Tooth color was the main reason for seeking bleaching treatment
M6 - Irrigation Trends among Endodontists in Saudi Arabia
Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine current trends in irrigation selection among Endodontists

Methods: Survey participants were asked 14 questions based on their individual responses. Among other questions, participants were asked about their irrigant selection, irrigant concentration, smear layer removal, and use of adjuncts to irrigation.

Results: Our data indicate that >91% of respondents are using sodium hypochlorite as their primary irrigant, Most endodontists surveyed (56%) use full-strength sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl concentration >5.0%) Seventy-seven percent of respondents aim to remove the smear layer during endodontic treatment. Almost half of all respondents use an adjunct to irrigation with 44% using ultrasonic activation and 36% using sonic (or subsonic) activation.

Conclusion: Most of the respondents are using full Strength sodium hypochlorite and are routinely removing the smear layer during endodontic treatment. In addition, almost half of the respondents are using an adjunct, such as ultrasonic activation, to aid in their irrigation technique.
Male Abstract | Dentistry
M7 - Perception of general public regarding aesthetic dentistry; a survey among dental patients visiting RCsDP
Ansari SH, AbdulWahid A, Al-Shamrani M, Altwijri MK, Al-Helal M, Al-Momen A, Al-Mutairi Y Al nahdi F Al-Shehri A
Introduction: During the past few years, there has been the inclusion of new products and technologies dentistry, and the public’s opinions about oral treatment have changed to some extent. The result of the economic changes has caused many patients to delay treatment because of lack of funds. The merely go for provisional treatment because they cannot afford or are not willing to spend the money to have definitive treatment

Materials and Methods: A well designed questionnaire was used to assess the perception of Saudi people regarding the aesthetic dentistry. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed.

Results and Conclusions: The general public has knowledge about bleaching, but they don’t have enough information about veneers. Therefore, the overall knowledge regarding aesthetic dentistry is low. Majority of the participants are willing to spend more on aesthetics and cut on other personal expenses. Females have more knowledge and they are much eager to undergo any aesthetic dental treatment.
M8 - Factors Influencing Patients’ Decisions While Choosing a Dental Care Provider
Introduction: With all the advancements made in modern-day dentistry and all the subdivisions in specialties that cater to dental care, there are several factors that influence a patient in the decision making process of choosing their oral health care provider. The study at hand was carried out with the aim to deduce the various factors that influence patients' selectivity when it comes dental care providers.

Materials and Methods: This study focused on patients visiting different university hospitals in Riyadh Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 634 questionnaires were collected and analysed. Demographic information was included at the start of the survey. The survey consisted of questions relating to possible factors influencing patients’ decisions while choosing a dental care provider

Results and Conclusion: (53.2%) of patients preferred private dental clinics over Government or University dental setups. Most patients were influenced into choosing a dentist by their reputation (49.7%) or by a recommendation from kith and kin (59.8%). The dentist’s personality (82.2%) and level of education (68.6%) played a significant role in them being selected by patients. Specialists (53.6%) had a much higher chance of being chosen than other dental practitioners.
Male Abstract | Dentistry
M9 - Attitude Towards The Disclosure of Professional Errors Among Dentists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Nomay N, AlHargan A, Ashi A, Alshalhoub A
Introduction: Individuals have different attitudes toward the ethical duty of disclosure of errors. Such attitude is affected by the type of error, the outcome or consequence and the patient response during or after dealing with the error. Nevertheless, points of views are still considered controversial regarding this matter.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a stratified sampling technique to approach participants in hospitals and social media in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All information was collected using a self administrated questionnaire and modified to determine behavioral actions towards dental errors.

Results and Conclusion: From 323 questionnaires collected, 52% were females, 71.7% of the participants were under the age of 30 and 68.5% of them were Saudi. The dental staff represented 39.31%. It was found that the attitude of the dental staff towards dental errors disclosure 50.4% preferred to disclose all errors to the patient. Moreover, 81.9% non-dental professionals admit that the dentist who committed the error should disclose it to the patient.
M10 - Survey of Saudis Dentists’ Restorative Treatment Decisions on Approximal Caries Lesions
Wassem M, Badr M, AlBagomi A,AlOsiami S,AlSheri Y, AlObaid R
Aim: To assess Saudis dentists’ restorative treatment decisions on approximal caries lesions, including treatment threshold and restorative methods and materials.

Methods: Questionnaire assessing restorative treatment decisions on approximal caries was distributed to a sample (n = 100) of Saudis dentists. A total of 95 (95%) dentists answered the questionnaire. Results Nearly half of the respondents (40%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 36-48%) would prepare a cavity for an approximal lesion confined to the enamel, while 39% (95% CI, 34-44%) would operatively restore the lesion at the dentin-enamel junction. The preferred cavity design was tunnel preparation technique, which was chosen by 44% of respondents (95% CI, 40-52%),The preferred restorative material for 64% of respondents was composite resin (95% CI, 61-71%).

Conclusion: Saudis dentists tend to restore approximal caries lesions when the lesions are confined to the enamel and their development can still be arrested.
Male Abstract | Dentistry
M11 - Reliability of the CAMBRA caries risk assessment system when performed by final year dental students – A Pilot study
AlShobaili Y, Shanbari N, AlYousef A, AlNaim I, Pani SC
Background: The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system was developed in the United States in 2007. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of RCsDP dental student towards CAMBRA

Methodology: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability of the CAMBRA system was adapted from a previously published source. The questionnaire was filled by 80 male students and 56 female students. The results were analyzed using the SPSS ver 22 data processing software.

Results and Conclusion: Two-thirds of male and female reported knowledge about the caries management by risk assessment, although it does not mean they don’t want to learn more about CAMBRA. The participants corresponded with CAMBA being a useful tool in predicting caries in the future. Over half of the population surveyed believed that CAMBRA improve caries risk assessment and had a positive attitude towards the preventive nature of CAMBRA
M12 - The effect of using mobile applications for improving oral hygiene in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances: a pilot study
AlKadhi OH, ZahidMN, AlManea R, AlThaqib H, AlHarbi T
Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using reminders via mobile applications to improve oral hygiene in comparison to verbal oral hygiene instructions.

Materials and Methods: A blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel branches was carried out. Inclusion criteria were: subjects having orthodontic fixed appliance and aged 12 years old and above. The sample consisted of 30 subjects (21 males) and (9 females) with mean age 17.8 years old.Group 1 (n=15) received a mobile application that shows oral hygiene instructions and sends notifications to remind the subjects to practice oral hygiene. Group 2 (n=15) received verbal oral hygiene instructions during routine orthodontic visits.

Results: a statistically significant decrease was found in PI, BI and MGI at T1 in group 1 compared to T0, while in group 2, there were no statistically significant differences between T0 and T1. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this pilot study, the following can be concluded: PI, BI and MGI all significantly decreased after four weeks of using active reminders of OHI on mobile application compared to verbal OHI. Further research with longer periods of follow-up is recommended.
Male Abstract | Dentistry
M12a - Prevalence of Parafunctional Oral Habits and Need of Orthodontic Treatment in Schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia
AlHobail S, AlYami A, AlShahrani T, AlMejalad N, AlKahdi O, Abbasi A
Introduction: The relationship between parafunctional habits and the need for orthodontic treatment has not been studied in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of different parafunctional oral habits among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia.

Materials and Methods: 507 5-7 year-old Saudi schoolchildren 190 males and 317 females. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Parafunctional habits were recorded and treatment need was evaluated using modifiedIOTN.

Results: Prevalence of oral habits ranged from 7.9% to 56.2%.Modified IOTN aesthetic component showed 41.8%. Chi-square showed males has thumb sucking, mouth breathing and finger sucking more than females, while females has more lip biting.

Conclusions: Parafunctional oral habits prevalence in schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia (99.6%),88% has definitive orthodontic treatment need. Mouth breathing, thumb sucking and finger sucking is more prevalent in males and lip biting is more prevalent in females.
Male Abstract | Pharmacy
M13 - Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Phytochemicals from Moringa peregrine seed oil
Behery F Yosif A
Introduction: Moringaceae is a monogeneric family that is known for its medicinal and nutritional values. Moringa peregrine (Al-ban or Al-yassar) is wide spread in northern and southern area of Saudi Arabia. The secondary metabolites present in Moringa peregrine growing in Saudi Arabia are not fully characterized.

Objective: The objective of this study is the isolation and analysis of Moringa peregrine seed oil phytochemical composition.

Materials: Moringa peregrine seed oil was provided as a courtesy gift from Aljuhani farm, Medina city, KSA. Different organic solvents were used such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol (Duksan, Korea). Silica gel (Merck 60) was used as the stationary phase in column chromatography (CC). Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor fractions eluted from CC. Different glassware was used during the whole chromatographic separation process. Isolated compounds were subjected to proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Bruker 500 MHz) in King Saud University.

Method: Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography: After wet-packing the column (Length 30 cm, Diameter 2 cm) with silica gel (25 gm), 5 gm of Moringa peregrine seed oil mixed with celite and loaded on top of the column. A mixture of ethyl acetate and n-hexane was used as the mobile phase. Gradient elution starting from 1% up to 15 % of ehyl acetate in n-hexane (100 mL each) was adopted. Fractions (100 mL each) were collected. Fractions were dried under vacuum using rotary evaporator. Two pure compounds (compounds 1 & 2) were eluted and showed Rf values of 0.68 and 0.24, respectively (mobile phase ethyl acetate: n-hexane 1:9, normal phase TLC).

Result: Using 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data, compound 1 was identified as the triglyceride triolein. Compound 2 structure elucidation is under progress.

Conclusion: Moringa peregrine oil contains different phytochemicals which were not subjected to chromatographic separation and structure elucidation.
Male Abstract | Post Graduate
M14 - Quantitative Assessment of the relationship between the roots of the maxillary posterior teeth and the floor of the maxillary sinus using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans in Riyadh colleges of dentistry and pharmacy
Shaheen R, Shafshak S, AlMeshat H
Aim: To evaluate the relationship of the maxillary posterior teeth’s roots and the maxillary sinuses, and to calculate the incidence of the roots’ close proximity to the sinuses using the CBCT scans.

Materials and Methods: Out of 208 CBCT scans examined, 150 scans were following the inclusion criteria and were examined using GALAXIS GALILEOS Viewer version 1.9. The Panoramic view in addition to the axial and tangential planes were used to aid in the alignment of the area that was evaluated, and the cross-sectional plane was used for the evaluation. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22 and Microsoft Excel.

Results and Conclusion: Intrusion into the maxillary sinus was evident in 25.4% of the roots, which highlights the importance of evaluating the relationship between the roots of maxillary teeth and the maxillary sinuses before any surgical intervention.
M15 - Evaluation of Parental Stress During Dental Rehabilitation of Their Child – A Comparison of treatment in dental chair and under general anesthesia
AlQahtani F, Pani SC
Background and Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the stress felt by parents of children undergoing dental treatment using heart rate and the Dental Anxiety Stress (DAS) questionnaire. The study will also aim to compare the stress felt between parents of children whom get chair side treatment to the stress felt by parents of children whom get there treatment under general anesthesia.

Methodology: The sample comprise of the parents (both mother and father) . Group A comprise of 20 sets of parents of medically fit children aged between four to seven years of age, who have been decided for complete dental rehabilitation chair side without using of nitrous oxide. Group B comprise of 20 sets of parents of medically fit children aged between four to seven years of age, who have been decided for complete dental rehabilitation chair side with using of nitrous oxide. Group C comprise of 20 sets of parents of medically fit children aged, who have been referred for complete dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia.

Results and Conclusion: Parents should be provided with detailed information and instructions concerning planned medical procedures as well as preparation of children for hospitalization.
Male Abstract | Post Graduate
M16 - Effectiveness of Various Dental Bleaching Techniques: in vitro study
AlRizqi A, AlOmari M
Aim: To evaluate the bleaching effectiveness on teeth exposed to home bleaching agent (10% Carbamide Peroxide) and in-office bleaching agent (25% hydrogen peroxide) with and without light activation.

Materials and Methods: Forty (40) freshly extracted human premolar teeth were collected and immersed for 24 hours in tea solution. After discoloration, blocks were randomly divided into four groups (n=10 each): Group 1 (CONTROL); No Bleaching, Group 2; Bleached by 10% Carbamide Peroxide for 4 hours daily for 7 days, Group 3; Bleached by 25% Hydrogen Peroxide with ZOOM-LED light activation for 15 minutes and repeated 3 times, Group 4; Bleached by 25% Hydrogen Peroxide same as group 3 but without light activation. Tooth color ‘shade’ was measured by Spectrophotometric VITA Easyshade according to the CIEL*a*b* color space system. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that using high concentrations bleaching in short duration (irrespective of using light activation) gave same effects as the prolonged application of bleaching agent in low concentration. However, optimal bleaching can be achieved with any techniques used in this experiment.
M17 - Roots and Root Canals Morphology of a maxillary first premolars in a Kuwaiti population: Micro CT study
AlEnezi MA, AlNazhan S, AlOmari M
Introduction: This study aimed to describe the anatomy of maxillary first premolars in a Kuwaiti population using micro–computed tomography (μCT).

Methods: One hundred (100) extracted maxillary first premolars were scanned in a micro–computed tomographic device using an isotropic resolution of 22.9 mm. The external anatomy of each tooth (number of roots, length of roots from CEJ to apex, and presence of palatal groove) as well as the internal anatomy (number of canals, presence of apical deltas, lateral canals, and isthmuses) were evaluated.

Results: The number of roots were one root (57%), two roots (41%), and three roots (2%). The roots length were measured, the longest root was 17.7mm while 11.2mm was the shortest. The palatal groove incidence was (63.4%). Type IV configuration was the most prevalent (53%) followed by type I (11%) according to Vertucci classification. An apical deltas, lateral canals and isthmi were (33%, 48%, and 21%) respectively.

Conclusion: The majority of the roots having a Vertucci type IV canal configuration. A new root canal configuration type ІX for (1-2-1-2-1) and type X for (2-1-3) were given (proposed) for Kuwaiti population.
Male Abstract | Post Graduate
M18 - Association Between Sella Turcica Bridging And incidence of Canines Impaction
AlShahrani Y, AlSanea J
Background and Aim: Until lately, studies have linked the sella turcica bridge to multiple hereditary developmental syndromes affecting the craniofacial region and various systemic disorders. It has also been discovered that many local dental anomalies such as tooth transposition, hypodontia, and missing mandibular second premolars have associations with interclinoidal calcification.

Methodology: Lateral cephalometric Radiographs and OPG's prior to orthodontic treatment for 50 subjects with impacted canines ( 25 Labial and 25 palatal ), aged between 15 and 45 years, compared with radiographs for a control group (n:25). The size of Sella turcica (length, depth and diameter) was measured and the bridging was evaluated among the groups

Results and Conclusion: The frequencies of complete and partial calcification of sella in patients with palatal impaction were (4%) and (80%), whereas in patients with buccal impaction were ,(0) and (48%), in comparison to the control group that were (0) and (32%) respectively. The odds of having partial and complete bridging among the patients was 3 times greater than in the control group (odds ratio, 3.210; 95% CI, 1.66-6.17
M19 - Characteristics of Maxillary Incisive Foramen and Nasopalatine Canal in CBCT Image in Riyadh city
Tarish,M., Shafshak,S.& Al-Mashat,H
Background and Aim: A careful knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the maxilla, especially the nasopalatine canal (NPC) is a corner stone for a successful outcome in oral rehabilitation following loss of the incisors.To examine characteristics of incisive foramen and incisive canal in the maxilla

Methods: This retrospective study evaluated a sample of CBCT scans of 250 patients, 150 were selected from 250 images examined. Selection was according to Inclusion criteria. The following measurements were recorded: Incisive foramen diameter (Mesiodistal and Bucco-Palatal) NPC length; distance from the buccal border of the incisive foramen to the facial aspect of the buccal bone plate at the level of incisive foramen and in the middle of NPC.

Result and Conclusion: The shape of the incisal foramen that is most commonly detected is the round, with a percentage of 43.3%. The oval shape come the next with 34.0%. Single Incisive opening was seen in 90.7%,The measurements conducted around nasopalatine canal provided useful information prior to implant placement in the anterior maxilla.
Male Abstract | Post Graduate
M20 - The Effect of Gingival Display on Perceiving Upper Incisors Inclination among Saudi Orthodontists, Dentists and Lay People
AlYami AH, AlSanea J
Background and Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and compare the aesthetic perceptions of dentists, orthodontist and lay people regarding the effect of gummy smile, in which the observers are expected to report the degree of harmony of the smiles exposed and rate their level of attractiveness and inclination.

Materials and Methods: Ninety observers (orthodontists, dentists and laypersons) reported the degree of harmony of 27 images captured using 3D scanner and presented in an objective questionnaire and the participants indicated if there was any difference in each view (frontal, oblique and profile).

Results and Conclusion: Statistically significant differences were found only for the harmony of the smile between the dentists and orthodontists, with orthodontists being more critical when assessing the smile at different inclinations and gingival levels. The lay people reported high upper incisors inclinations when the gingival levels were increased and they were less critical compared to the other participants. The patterns of greater or lesser harmony determined by observers during the smile were similar to those found in the literature as the ideal standard in relation to inclination of the upper incisors and gummy smile.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F1 - Disparities in the prevalence of dental caries among out patients of different nationalities attending RCsDP clinics
Ansari SH, Mattar A, AlAjmi K, AlHarbi S, Madani A, Alenazi S
Introduction: Dental caries is prevalent among various nationalities living in different parts of the world. Studies in different parts of the world have suggested a clear difference in DMFT indices among various nationalities.

Method: Clinical type of study design. Research participants were included from the out patients visiting the clinics of RCsDP. Convenient sampling was done using subjects from various nationalities .DMFT, gingival and plaque indices were recorded from the patients.

Result: About 35% from the 300 participants had DMFT between 16-20. DMFT more than 20 was found in Pilipino , Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. Saudis were found to have more participants with DMFT less than 5.

Conclusion: There is a difference between various nationalities as far as DMFT is concerned. Saudis were found to have low DMFT as compared to other groups. Pilipino, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi participants were recorded with the highest DMFT scores.
F2 - A statistical study of the number of hopeless and extracted permanent teeth in a population of young Saudis
Abu Naim .H, Altanaj .A, Alturki .S, AlQassab .F , AlGhanim .H, AlAwad .M, Safadi . R, Safadi . R, Safadi . R
Aim: This study highlights the current situation in a population of young Saudis concerning missing permanent teeth because of extraction and hopeless teeth including remaining roots and class III extremely mobile teeth.

Methods: One hundred and fifty divided equally (75 female and 75 male) Saudi national patients age from 18-40 were examined in dental clinics. The number of extracted permanent teeth, remaining roots of permanent teeth, and class III mobile permanent teeth according to Miller’s index were documented in a patient examination form then a statistical analysis was done for overall percentages and results using Z- test for two population proportions.

Results: The number of extracted teeth was significantly higher than the number of hopeless (remaining roots / class III mobility) teeth with a significant difference (P-value <0.05).There is no significant difference in the number of extracted teeth between males and females with an insignificant (P-value>0.05) Males were significantly higher than females in the number of hopeless (remaining roots / class III mobility) teeth with a significant (P-value<0.05).

Conclusion: Oral hygiene awareness and education should be raised starting the early childhood.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F3 - Prevalence of Canine Impaction in Riyadh Population, a Retrospective Study
AlTurki S, BinMelha S, AlDawsari G, AlMeshari N, AlMeshari S, AlBadr K
Introduction: Canine impaction is considered one of the most common malocclusion problems. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of impacted permanent canines in relation to age, gender and medical history.

Methods: This is a retrospective study done on panoramic radiograph records of 2166 patients. These radiographs were examined with age ranging from 15 to 40 years with a mean of 27.2 ±7.7 years.

Results: The main finding in this study maxillary canine impaction is significantly different between males (2.88%) and females (3.85%) with (P=0.004). Only 8 cases showed impaction of the mandibular canine. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata version12 (StataCorp. 2012).

Conclusion: The present study showed that the canine impaction was found to be one of the most common dental anomalies in Saudi Arabia. Maxillary canine impaction was more predominant in female patients, while Mandibular canine impaction was vary rare. It was found that more studies needs to be conducted in other parts of Saudi Arabia.
F4 - Cephalometric norms in Arabic population – a Meta analysis
AlShammery D, AlMubarak S, BinHezaim A, AlKunien R, Pani SC, AlDrees A
Background: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on cephalometric norms among different Arabic countries, Caucasian norms are referred to when Arabic patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Arabic population, a meta-analysis of the relevant literature was performed.

Methods: Electronic database (PubMed), Saudi Dental Journal and Master theses were searched for studies reporting cephalometric values of normal male and female among 20 Arabic countries. A total of 23 studies were met the inclusion criteria. A Meta analysis with results from these studies was completed using comprehensive Meta analysis software version3. Result and conclusion : The result of Meta analysis show high level of heterogeneity, the result of study that the idea of Arabic norm should be revisited.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F5 - Level of Awareness toward Orthodontic Treatment for Medically Compromised Patients among Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia
AlEid H, AlAjaji N, Kazim S, AlAyed L, AlShammery D
Background: Today many medically compromised patients are seeking orthodontic therapy and it should not be abstain because of presence of medical disorder

Aim of the study: To evaluate the awareness regarding orthodontic treatment for medically compromised patients among senior dental students, interns, general practitioners, orthodontists and other dental specialists.

Methods: An online survey was distributed(Survey Monkey), the survey was distributed through network by using social media and emails. The target of the survey were senior dental students, interns, general practitioners, orthodontists and other specialists in dentistry in Saudi Arabia.

Results: Result shown that there is variation in the knowledge among the dental ractitioner toward the orthodontic management of medically compromised patients.

Conclusion: There is need to improve the knowledge of Orthodontic Treatment for Medically Compromised Patients among the society.
F6 - Awareness of non-medical university students to antibiotics use in dentistry
AlMejlad N, AlYami A, AlShakin F, AlMudhai S, Abu-Mostafa N
Objective: To investigate knowledge and attitude about medical and dental usages of antibiotics among female non-medical university students.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey using a validated self-administered questionnaire was performed from February to April, 2015 among 400 female non-medical students. Students younger than 18 or older than 26 years were excluded. The respondents filled out questionnaires comprised 6 sections; demographic data, antibiotics access, attitude, knowledge related to usage, resistance, and usage in dentistry.

Results: Antibiotics usage: ranged from 23.8% to 62.8% (the mean was 40.44%). Indications after dental disease: ranged from 9.5% to 56.8% (the mean was 29.5%). Antibiotics resistance: ranged from 10.3% to 42.8% (the mean was 32%). Doctor’s prescription was the reason to use antibiotics for 77.8% of respondents. Thirty-one% stop antibiotics when they feel well and keep it at home, and 40.3% look at the expiry date before usage. There were no significant differences between the two colleges.

Conclusion: This study noticed bad attitude and lack of knowledge related to the use of antibiotics particularly after dental disease.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F7 - Characteristics of Maxillary Sinus Septa. A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation
Assari A, Alotaibi N, Alareshy M, Alajaji M, Alqarni A
Introduction: Maxillary sinus septa are thin walls of cortical bone projecting from the floor of the sinus. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence, location and morphological differences of the septa using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on CBCT examinations taken from patients attended the oral diagnostic department at Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy. The sample included both mixed and permanent dentition and edentulous patients. Patients with history of sinus surgery were excluded. The images were viewed in 3 planes (sagittal, coronal and axial) and the left and right maxillary sinuses were evaluated for the prevalence, location and morphological differences of the septa. The measurements were statistically analyzed using SPSS software.

Results and Conclusions: 122 out of 200 patients showed one or more bony septa in the maxillary sinus. The septal location and angulation was not limited to a specific area or a specific range. The findings did not find any significant differences between age groups of this study
F8 - Knowledge and awareness among primary school teachers of Riyadh towards emergency management of dental trauma
Ansari SH, Obied M, Aljumah G, Almaiman S, Wadi M, Aljefri B, Altassan N, Alajaji D, Alabdli M
Introduction: Dental trauma is one of the important problems in childhood. It can vary from a minor chip to extensive maxillofacial damage. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge and awareness regarding emergency management of dental trauma and estimate the incidence of trauma during their teaching experience.

Materials and Methods: Cross sectional observational survey was conducted among 300 school teachers in Riyadh Saudi Arabia using a self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge and awareness of school teachers toward emergency management of dental trauma.

Results and Conclusion: 300 questionnaire was distributed to different primary and secondary schools of Riyadh. The response rate was 85%. A large majority of school teachers did not receive any training related to dental trauma management. A healthy number of school teachers had witnessed dental injuries during their work hours but their responses suggested they did not know about the basic first aid management of those injuries.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F9 - Knowledge and Awareness of Dental Implants: A Survey
Ansari SH, Saleh F, AlEssa R, Taher Y, Khalifa M
Introduction: Use of dental implants is on the rise in many developing countries. The most important aspect of implant treatment is its knowledge among general public. In Saudi Arabia, people choose either private or public dental treatment options.

Methods: This study was designed to investigate the level of knowledge if dental implants among general Saudi public. Subjects were inquired about various teeth replacement options and their preference. A closed ended questionnaire was used to assess the above mentioned points. Study was conducted in Riyadh Colleges where 364 people were inquired about their knowledge of implants.

Results and Conclusion: Female participants had better knowledge about dental implants as compared to males , Majority of the participants reported that dental implants are the best treatment option as compared to other fixed or removable choice and The only barrier to implants treatment is the high cost. Dental implants have become a popular choice of replacing missing teeth.
F10 - Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Plaque Removal Efficiency between A Rotary And A Manual Toothbrush
AlEydan A, AlAjlan S, Shafshak S
Introduction: Daily use of a toothbrush is an important aid to achieve good oral hygiene and plaque removal. This study compared plaque removal efficiency between a rotary and a manual toothbrush.

Methods: A controlled clinical trial was conducted over a 4-week period.The sample consisted of 60 dental students between the age 18 and 20.The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 30,one group used a manual toothbrush and the other group used a rotary toothbrush. Each participant’s gingival index and plaque index were assessed on the first day.The obtained data were analysed and different subgroups were compared using Student’s t-test.

Results: According to the paired t-test There is a significant difference between the final and initial plaque and gingival index scores for the rotary toothbrush (p<0.05) while there was a less significance in the reduction of PI and GI for the manual toothbrush.

Conclusion: From the result of the present study it could be concluded that the rotary toothbrush is more efficient in reduction of plaque and gingivitis.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F11 - The Effect Of Laser In Pocket Depth Reduction Among Chronic Periodontitis Patients
AlFadhey A, AlSwaidan S, AlFaifi A, AlGamdhi G, Albishri T, Tawfig A
Introduction: The principle of periodontal therapy is to restore function and arrest further progression of periodontal disease by removing the plaque and other contributing factor, through non- surgical therapy (Scaling and Root Planning (SRP)) and the mechanical therapy alone fails to eliminate all pathogenic bacteria for their location within the periodontium. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effect of diode laser therapy adjunct to SRP in treatment chronic periodontitis.

Material and Method: A pilot clinical study was conducted at dental clinic in Riyadh city. Twenty adult patients with chronic periodontitis was randomly enrolled for the treatment, all patients received one session of diode laser therapy addition to scaling and root planning and re-evaluated after six weeks.

Result: 81.8 % of moderate chronic periodontitis patients demonstrated a significant reduction of pocket depth with diode laser therapy adjuncts to scaling and root planning.

Conclusion: The results show the adjunctive benefits of diode laser treatment in chronic
F12 - Use of topical fluoride by the undergraduate students of RCsDP: A survey to measure the knowledge and practice
AlZawari R, AlUnaizan M, Ansari SH
Introduction: Preventive dentistry is one of the most important priorities of the WHO for preventing dental caries, the reason the dental students’ knowledge and attitude should be conducted in the same way.

Materials and Methods: A closed ended questionnaire was used to assess students’ knowledge about fluoride use in clinics. A total of 420 male and female students studying in levels 9 – 12 in RCsDP took part in this study. Total time duration of research was 2 months. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS.

Results: Most of the student agreed that they use topical fluoride usually on incipient caries . And approximately half of the students are fully aware of the toxic effect of T.F ingestion . finally , the majority of dental students response to a need of further information regarding the T.F. use.

Conclusion: Although dental students receive adequate information on the use, applications , toxicity and treatment of toxicity of fluoride, but they need a constant reminder of the delicacy of this matter as they tend to forget what they learnt about fluoride.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F13 - The use of a mobile phone based application for the education of mothers in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries – A comparison of first time mothers and mothers with more than one child
AlAnazi M, AlQahtani A, Pani SC, Assery M
Introduction: Given the high prevalence of early childhood caries in Saudi Arabia, there is need to ensure adequate preventive care. The penetration of mobile phone devices is widespread across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Recently there has been evidence of the success of phone based apps in the provision of preventive oral health care to children and their parents.The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a mobile phone based app in educating mothers of children below 6 years of age in preventive dental care.

Methodology: A mobile phone based app (iTeethy ™) was developed for iPhone and Android and made freely available on Google Play and App Store. The app was then distributed to 140mothers of children below 6 years of age. The mothers were subjected to a standardized knowledge attitude and practice of oral hygiene questionnaire before installing the app and one month after the distribution of the app.

Results and Conclusion: Significant improvement in the Knowledge and Attitudes of the mothers was reported after four weeks of using the App. Although there was greater improvement in first-time mothers, the difference between first time mothers and those with more than one child was not significant
F14 - A comparative study of oral hygiene habits and drinking water in Sharqiyah province versus Riyadh in relation to dental calculus accumulation.
Safadi . R, Safadi . R, Safadi . R, Kamali Y, AlFadel H, AlHowagi N, AlShami S, AlShaib S
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the amount of dental calculus formation and accumulation between two provinces in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which are Sharqiyah and Riyadh

Materials and Methods: 202 dental patients aged from 16-40 years old 101 from Riyadh and 101 from Sharqiyah visiting dental hospitals were examined clinically using calculus index and pH saliva test(using pH indicator papers full range) to define the acidity, neutrality, and the alkalinity of the saliva.Each patient answered a questionnaire that included questions about: oral hygiene habits Drinking water samples lab analysis was done for different water sources: Desalination drinking tap water, trucks loaded water, and bottled water.

Results and Conclusion: There is a statistically significant relationship between calculus severity and the type of drinking water(trucks/tap water, bottled) P-value <0.05. Patients who drink water from trucks/tap water are more likely to be at a four times higher risk to have calculus(moderate/heavy) than patients on bottled water
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F15 - Grape Seeds Extract gel as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis
Khalaf. A, Abu Naim. H, Meziad. M, Alshamma’a. M , AlKhouli Z, *Terkawi. T, *Rayyan. M, *Abdo. H*, ElDin DS*
Introduction: A double-blinded pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of a micro-biologically controlled formulated GSE gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Method: at baseline visit, 90 sites of PD greater than 4mm were selected from systemically healthy subjects aged 43.5 ±7.9 years, whom scaling and root planing was performed a week earlier with given oral hygiene instructions. Measurements of PD, GI, PI and BOP were taken for these sites. Then, they were divided into 40 control and 50 test sites, where for each subject test and control sites were located at contralateral sides of the oral cavity. Four applications of formulated 2% mucoadhesive GSE gel were applied at baseline visit (T0), 3, 6 and 9 days after T0 into test sites. Similarly, a control gel was applied into the control sites. Patients were re-evaluated four weeks after the last application for their PD, PI, GI and BOP.

Results: Paired t-test for both control and test samples showed a significant reduction (p ˂ 0.05) of the PI (0.7 in the control and 0.74 in the test), GI (0.5 and 0.72, respectively) and PD (0.75 and 0.74, respectively). However, the independent t-test showed no significant difference in improvement (p˃ 0.05) between control and test sites.

Conclusion: Subgingival application of the formulated 2% mucoadhesive GSE gel does not seem to produce any significant role in the treatment of chronic periodontitis within four weeks of clinical trial.
F16 - Assessment of Periodontal Disease Severity Among Chronic Kidney Disease Stages
Jamal B, AlTwaijri S, AlDayel L, AlGhamdi E, Tawfig A
Objective: To assess the periodontal status in relation to chronic kidney disease using the regular diagnostic methods, in addition to Alkaline phosphatase enzyme and pH value as biological markers.

Materials and Methods: A comparative study with cross-sectional design having a sample size of 120 participants in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Chronic kidney disease patients ranged from 20 to 65 years old, dentate (≥ 10 teeth) are assigned in one of 3 study groups: 1- Pre-dialysis, 2-On dialysis, 3-Transplant with a n=30 in each group. Non-invasive oral examination was performed to evaluate gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL). Salivary sample collection in 10 mL sterile test tube.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 41.90 + 12.08 years. There were a total of 55.8% (n=67) males and 44.2% (n=53) females. Highest percentage of mild gingival inflammation (GI) was found in the hemodialysis patients 70% (n=21). Moderate and Severe periodontitis were distinctly higher in the dialysis group.

Conclusion: On the basis of results of this study it can be concluded that the activity of ALP enzyme and pH levels were increased in the saliva of patients with dialysis therapy as a consequence of severe periodontal destruction in this group specifically.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F17 - Prevalence of hearing damage and its association with occupational noise exposure over a period of time among Saudi dental sample
AlDuraiby R, Ahmed M, AlBatly L, AlHumain M, Softah N, AlAbdulwahhab B
Objective: Dental practitioners are prone to hearing loss due to noise exposure encountered in dental clinics. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the persistent high-frequency sounds produced by dental equipment and hearing decrements among dental personnel.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included 38 randomly selected Saudi dentists from different specialties who were exposed to noise during working hours and 38 individuals as a control group. The participants underwent four audiometric tests that included an otoscopic examination, tempanometry, pure tone audiometry, and a distortion product otoacoustic emissions test.

Results and Conclusion: Significant differences in hearing loss were found between the two groups in the left ear (p=0.003), between the right and left ears (p=0.005) in the distortion product otoacoustic emission test. The noise from dental clinics can cause hearing problems; however, these problems are not severe in nature. Increases in daily noise exposure increase the incidence of hearing loss among dentists.
F18 - The Relationship between Dental Anxiety Level and Patients’ Knowledge of the Treatment Procedure
AlShathri N, Dada B, AlGhofaili R, AlTwerqi D, AlDawsari G, AlZabin A, Madani Y ,Tawfig A*
Background and Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between dental anxiety level and patients’ knowledge of the procedure steps to be conducted, and to perceive the biological correlation between heart rate and dental anxiety.

Material and Methods: A random sample of patients between the ages of 20 to 50 years old who attended RCDP’s dental clinic were divided in to two groups, a study group and a control group. The study group were shown a video describing the dental procedure steps, after filling the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) questionnaire. The study group participant's heart rates were recorded four times with a pulse Oximeter; in the waiting area, while watching the video, on the dental chair before receiving anesthesia, and after the procedure. The control group did not watch the video and had their heart rates recorded three times.

Results and Conclusion: While watching the video, the study group showed an increased heart rate. When seated on the dental chair, both groups displayed increased heart rate readings.Salivary cortisol level measurements for both groups were within the normal range. However, the study group showed a higher salivary cortisol level than the control.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F19 - Prevalence of Chief Complaints among pediatric Dental Patients in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy
Ansari SH, Al-Saffan A, Al-Dhubiban D, Turkostany O, Al-Khalaf R, Al-Assaf D
Introduction: Most causes for seeking outpatient emergency dental care are disease processes which may be avoided by infant oral health and preventive dentistry programs and early treatment intervention

Materials and Methods: 490 patients were randomly selected from the dental clinics of Riyadh colleges of dentistry and pharmacy to assess the prevalence of different chief complaints. All data was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using SPSS data processing software. The data collection was completed in 3 months time.

Results and Conclusions: An equal male to female ratio was observed who participated in this study. Median age of the participants was 7-8 years. 56% of the subjects had previously visited the dentist at least once. 43% children visited the clinics with the chief complaint of pain, 28% for routine check-up, 16% for esthetics and crowding of teeth, whereas 7% for swelling and trauma. Pain was reported most commonly among 7-9 year olds, trauma was reported the most among 4-6 year olds and esthetics was the major reason for dental visit among 9-13 year olds.
F20 - Patient Satisfaction with Esthetic Dental Appearance and Desired Treatments Outcome. Study in A Saudi Population
Abu Naim H, AlKhouli Z , AlBounni R*
Introduction: Dental appearance is an important feature in determining the attractiveness of a face, and thus plays a key role in human social interactions. The aim of our study is to evaluate Saudi participants’ Satisfaction with the present dental esthetics on the anterior teeth, and what are their esthetic demands they seek to improve dental appearance.

Methodology: A total of approximately 800 patients consisted of males and females of mean age ranged (18- 40) in Saudi Arabia Kingdom. A structured, interviewer-guided questionnaire was used to evaluate patient satisfaction with their esthetic dental appearance, cosmetic elements and desired treatments.

Result and Conclusion: Of the 800 patients, 57 % were dissatisfied with their dental appearance (men were more satisfied than women with their dental appearance). Tooth color was the primary reason for dissatisfaction(61%) , followed by self-reported malaligned teeth (40.5 %) , then followed by hiding teeth when smiling(30.4 % ) & self reported caries in anterior teeth (25.8 %) The most desirable treatment reported in this study was Tooth whitening.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F21 - Patient's Preference Concerning Management Of Gingival Depigmentation
AlYousef. A , ALGazwi. H , ALShokan. H , AL Marzog. W, Shafshak S
Background: Gingival health and appearance are essential part of attractive smile. Removal of a pleasant and confidant smile. This study aimed to search for the degree of awareness, acceptance and patient desire to remove physiologic pigmentation. And if so, what was the treatment modality they prefer to have.

Material and Methods: One hundred patients having physiologic pigmentations shared in the study. After getting their informed consent, they answered the distributed questionnaire. Data were collected and statistically analyzed.

Results: revealed that 50% of participants were feeling bothered from presence of pigmentation, 17% said that they were sometimes bothered, while 9% were not complaining. The majority (48%) noticed their presence since more than 5 years. Fifty fife percent did not know the cause behind and 16% reported smoking as the cause and 18% said it is hereditary. Regarding the preferred method for de-pigmentation 7% preferred Laser, 155 selected to have surgical removal with scalpel, 9% with bur and 1% selected chemical application.

Conclusion: Patients are aware of physiologic pigmentation, want to remove them with the less painful technique, but they are not familiar with its causes.
F22 - Career and postgraduate Education preference of Dental Students in Saudi Arabia ( Cross – Sectional study)
AlAseeri M, AlTurki M, AlShammery D
Aim of the study: to identify career and postgraduate Education preference among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia.

Material and Method: Online survey was developed using surveymonkey.com . The survey asked questions about the demographic data and choice of specialty of students. The questionnaire was distributed across Ksu, Riyadh Colleges, KAU, KKU, aldammam university, alfarabi university, Ibn Sena, Um Alquraa ,Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz, Qassim University

Results: 600 students participated in this study from multiple dental schools in Saudi Arabia,40% of the respondent were from RCsDP,21% from KKU, 20 % from KSU , and the remaining from multiple dental colleges in the kingdom.69% of the respondent where female and 31% male. The most preference specialty was orthodontics 34%, followed by restorative Dentistry 25%, and the least preferred specialty was oral radiology.

Conclusion: Orthodontic is the most preferred specialty among the undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F23a - Validation of an Arabic translation of a tool to measure the Attitudes and Intended Behaviors of Dental Students and Professionals towards Patients with Special Health Care Needs
AlHaragan A, AlAzzam A, Fayez E, Pani SC
Background and Aim: The perception of patients with special health care needs by dental students has received much attention over the past decade. The International Association for Disability and Oral Health (IADH) has developed a toolkit to assess the attitude and perception of dental students towards patients with special care needs. The aim of this study was to validate the Arabic version of the IADH toolkit.

Methodology: The toolkit was validated using the translate- retranslate technique. The questionnaire was distributed to 200 dental students and interns. Content and construct validity were examined by comparing the toolkit to the exposure of the dental students to patients with special health care needs. Reliability and reproducibility were measured using the Cronbach’s alpha.

Results and Conclusion: The Arabic version of the IADH toolkit showed an acceptable validity and good reliability in the population it was tested on
F23b - Prevalence of hearing damage and its association with occupational noise exposure among a sample of Saudi dentists: A cross-sectional study
AlDuraiby R, Ahmed M,AlBatli L, AlHumain M, SoftahN, AlAbdulwahhab B*
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the persistent high-frequency sounds produced by dental equipment and hearing decrements among dental personnel.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included 38 randomly selected Saudi dentists from different specialties who were exposed to noise during working hours and 38 individuals as a control group. The participants underwent four audiometric tests that included an otoscopic examination, tempanometry, pure tone audiometry, and a distortion product otoacoustic emissions test.

Results: 15.8% of the dentists and 2.6% of the control group had lost hearing. Significant differences in hearing loss were found between the two groups in the left ear (p=0.003), between the right and left ears (p=0.005) in the distortion product otoacoustic emission test.

Conclusions: The noise from dental clinics can cause hearing problems; however, these problems are not severe in nature. Increases in daily noise exposure increase the incidence of hearing loss among dentists.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F23c - Occlusal Wear of Primary Teeth Due to Preformed Crowns – An In-Vitro Study
Binhezaim A, Rayyani R, Pani SC*
Background and Aim: Over the past five years zirconia crowns for pediatric dentistry have become popular. However, little is known on the impact these crowns have on the occlusal wear of opposing primary teeth. The aim of this study was to assess – in vitro the occlusal wear of primary teeth caused by zirconia crowns as compared to Stainless steel crowns.

Methodology: Eight zirconia crowns and eight stainless steel crowns were embedded in acrylic before mounting them in a chewing stimulator device CS-4.8 (SD Mechatronik) . These were placed against imbedded primary teeth for 50000 cycles at a force of 35N. The teeth were then analyzed for wear using a surface profilometer.

Results and Conclusion: The zirconia crowns caused significantly greater volume loss than stainless steel crowns, however the wear pattern of stainless steel crowns were rougher than the pattern produced by zirconia crowns
F23d - Bilateral Taurodontism. A case report of Root Canal Treatment on the lower first molar
Abu-Mostafa N, Abu Mostafa A, Alrayani, R
Background: Taurodontism defined as a morphologic change of generally multi-rooted teeth with large pulp chamber which its pulpal floor and furcation is apically displaced. It can be seen unilaterally or bilaterally, in any quadrants, and in both permanent and deciduous dentition. Root canal treatment for such teeth becomes a difficult due to extraordinary root canals in terms of shape and number.

Report: An 18 years old male Saudi patient presented to the Dental Hospital of the colleges complaining of pain on lower left first molar which contained temporary filling. Radiographical examination revealed an access cavity with temporary filling on the tooth #36. The most interesting finding was elongation in the pulp chambers of molar teeth bilaterally, and the case was diagnosed as Taurodontism. The first molars were classified as Hypertaurodonts while the second molars classified as Mesotaurodonts. The patient had non-contributory medical history. A challenging root canal treatment was performed to the #36. The pulpal floor was very deep and four canals were prepared and obturated.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F23e - Kirschner wire fixation associated with Chronic Suppurative Osteomyelitis: A case report
Abu-Mostafa N* , Abu-Naim H
Background: The Kirschner is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. It was widely used in surgery to stabilize zygomatic arch fractures, nasal septal fixation, mandible reconstruction.

Case Report: A 45-year-old Sudanese male patient was referred to Emergency care complaining of pain on the left side of the mandible with teeth mobility since one month. The medical history revealed that he had an operation on the left side of the mandible23 years ago. The operation was to remove a cystic lesion with fixation of bone fracture.

A panoramic radiograph showed a Kirschner wire about 5 cm in length extended from the middle of the ramus to the lower left 2nd premolar. At the site of the anterior end, there was a large radiolucency with external root resorbtion in adjacent teeth. CBCT was done and revealed the lingual location of the Kirschner wire. Depending on the clinical and radiographic examination, the case was diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis on the left body of the mandible. Under local anesthesia, Kirschner wire was removed surgically with extraction of teeth no 34 and 35
F23f- The Prevalence of Malpractice Home Bleaching In Saudi Population
AlQahtani M, AlFuraih N, AlMajed M, AlShehri A, AlMutairi I, AlShammery L, Bounni R
Objectives: The aim of this research is to evaluate the awareness of Saudi population about the risk factors of unsupervised home bleaching.

Methods: We designed a form with 12 questions for all factors related with the malpractice of teeth bleaching and distributed this form among approximately 2174 samples of Saudi population then collected the answers after fulfill the answering of the questionnaire and according to the criteria inclusion we excluded the patients that don’t in accordance with our criteria.

Results: We reported that 39.9% of our samples in Saudi population have a previous experiences with at-home bleaching .The questionnaire shows that 34% were using a whitening brittle toothpaste as a bleach method, while 20% of them were using the whitening strips from the market.Also we found as a main side effect that effects on the population from wrong bleaching is the tooth sensitivity by 58% , and the tooth discoloration came subsequently by 15%.

Conclusion: Overall, the survey of samples satisfaction with the malpractice of teeth bleaching revealed that approximately 876 samples used wrong methods , that cause a high prevalence of side effects as teeth sensitivity, discoloration of teeth gingivitis and recession . therefore we need more awareness programs to educate the population about this type of bleaching.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
F23g - Quantitative Analysis of the Effects of Chewing gum on the Dental caries, Stress and Work of Dental students in Riyadh
Nishath sayed, Binyahya FA, Alansary RD
Aim and Objectives: To assess the knowledge of dental students about the effects of sugar containing and sugar free chewing gums on oral health and to study the effects of chewing gums on the perceived levels of stress among the dental students. To compare the work performance, attention and concentration among chewers and non chewers.

Materials and Methods: This study is a quantitative cross sectional survey designed to collect the primary data from dental students of Riyadh colleges of dentistry and pharmacy, randomly using self designed questionnaire.

Results and Conclusion: Overall result suggests that sugar free chewing gums produces lot of benefits to the oral health as well as general health of an individual. Knowledge about chewing gums is observed very less among dental students in our study . Stress is reduced and work performance in chewers is improved in most of the studies so it is suggested that chewing sugar free gums among dental professional students will help to improve their academic and clinical performance in their field.
23h - Qualitative and Quantitative assessment of Oral Health of Life of Syrian Refugees
Sibai S, Rao A, Kazim S, PaniSC, Mosadomi HA
Background and Aim: Since the beginning of the Syrian unrest in 2011, there has been an outpouring of refugees into countries such as Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq and Jordan. The Syrian Refugee Crisis continues to be a grave problem over the past few years. The aim of this study is to use structured interviews to qualitatively assess the oral health quality of life of the patients who visit the dental clinics and to determine the barriers to dental care.

Methodology: The study was conducted in an Urban refugee clinic in Kirikahn, Turkey, located 10 km from the Syrian border. Focus group and in-depth interviews were conducted with the parents of children reporting for dental treatment in the camp. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed in Arabic. The transcripts English versions of the transcripts were qualitiatively analyzed using the NVivo data analysis software. Quantitative assessment was done using the Early Childhood oral health impact scale (ECOHIS)

Results and Conclusion: The results of the qualitative analyses established that although the interviewed populations felt that they had access to oral health care, the cost of travelling for dental care and the loss of income from travelling for the treatment of their children imposed a strain on the parent.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
23i - Association between orofacial cleft and congenital heart disease- A case control study from 2008 to 2014
Background and Aim: Orofaical clefts are the most common oro-facial birth defects with a prevalence that vary from one in 500 to one in 1500 live-births.The study was conducted to identify the association between congenital heart diseases, otitis media and aspiration pneumonia with orofacial clefts patients.

Material and Method: This hospital based case control study was performed in King Abdul-Aziz Medical City , a tertiary care center in eastern region of Riyadh. A total of 196 oral cleft patients with normal control of 196 patient. The inclusion criteria for normal control was any non-cleft patient who was admitted for any medical reason from 2008 to 2014. A total of 196 non-cleft patient were randomly selected and compared to cleft patients.The authors reviewed the files for both cleft patients and non cleft patients then we enter the data in Excel sheet under the variable that we determine in our codebook. The data was analyzed using statistical software SAS.

Result and Conclusion: A remarkable association of congenital heart disease (CHD) with cleft group was seen (p=0.0001) (Figure 4). A significant proportion of cleft group had aspiration pneumonia 31 patients (15.82%).
23j - Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Uses in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery- A KFSH&RC Experience
Fessi S,Sagga N, AlMutairi L,Palma A,Kashan A
Background and Aim: The aim of this study is to review treatment outcome of patients having received HBOT at the KFSH&RC from 1992 to 2014. Materials and methods: We performed a longitudinal cohort descriptive study that identified 120 patients treated with HBO treatment between (date of onset of the disease) until (December 2014). Data collection was carried out from (December 2014-February 2015). 5 operators with editing supervisors obtained all data from manual medical record review. Physical and electronic charts were reviewed for each patient.

Results and Conclusion: Adequate information to meet the inclusion criteria was obtained for 120 patients. The reached results of this study suggest that a correlation exists between improving the quality of life and receiving HBOT. Encouraging results were seen when HBOT was used as an adjunctive treatment or prophylactically.
Female Abstract | Dentistry
23k - Conservative management of gummy smile by botulinum toxin A Botox
AlOtaibi M, AlWayli H
Background: Excessive gingival display, or a "gummy smile," is defined as 2 mm or more of gingival exposure upon smiling. Such excessive gingival exposure can be aesthetically unappealing to patients. One factor that contributes to a gummy smile is hyperfunctional lip elevator muscles.Treatment options range from LefortI osteotomy, crown lengthening, intrusion, myectomy to muscle resection. A non-surgical and non-invasive treatment option for correction of a gummy smile is the use of Botulinum Toxin A

Case Report: A 25 years old female patient presented with the chief complaint of gummy smile .Patient had a straight profile with competent lips and during posed and unopposed smile the patient exhibited 6mm excessive gingival display.Patient was injected with Botulinium Toxin A in order to reduce excessive gingival display to improve the esthetic of her smile. She was followed-up and evaluated at 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Changes were documented by photographs and by patient satisfaction questioners that were obtained from the patient.
Female Abstract | Pharmacy
F27 - Development and Analysis Of Transdermal Patch of Loratadine
Background: This study the development of a controlled transdermal drug delivery system without these adverse effects is very important.

Method: The spectrophotometric determination of Loratadine was carried out by measurement of zero absorbance at the wavelength 245 nm (19) in a solvent mixture of (1:1) methanol and phosphate buffer. Transdermal therapeutic formulations (F1, F2) consists of Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E5 (HPMC E5), and a combination of HPMC E5: Ethyl cellulose (EC) in the ratio of (1:1) respectively were prepared. All formulations carried Tween 80 as penetration enhancer for Loratadine & Propylene glycol as plasticizer in chloroform : methanol (4:1) as solvent system. The prepared patches were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics such as weight variation,

Results and Conclusion: Spectrophotometric determination show linearity that was observed between 2-28 µg/ml with a regression coefficient of 0.999. The formulation F1 (HPMC E5) showed maximum release of 95.76 ± 1.38 % in 8 h, whereas F2 with (HPMC: EC) combination of polymers (1:1) showed maximum release of 76.76 ± 2.1 % in 23 h, emerging to be ideal formulations for loratidine.
F28 - Ficus sycomorus (fig) stem bark: phytochemical and biological screening
Hawash N, Maia R, AlMahmoud M, Tawfik K
Introduction: Medicinal higher plants have been used extensively as a source for numerous active constituents for treating human diseases. Ficus (Fig tree) is a genus of about 800 species and 2000 varieties of which many parts have been proven to have many biological activities.

Aim of the study: The main goals of our study were to explore the pharmacological activities of the different Ficus stem bark extract with examination of its hexane and chloroform fractions with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometer (GC/MS).

Method: The collected Ficus stem bark was shade-dried, extracted with methanol and fractionated with Vacuum Liquid Chromatography in a screening process.The cytotoxic, anti-fungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction were tested.

Results: Different fractions showed remarkable anti-microbial activities from which the ethyl acetate fraction was the strongest. GC/MS of chloroform fraction showed the presence of the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory alfa and beta amyrin acetate.

Conclusion: Fig tree bark should be considered as a source of many drugs, some of which could be beneficial to stop the increasing alarm of antibiotic resistance.
Female Abstract | Pharmacy
F29 - Herbal mixtures between folk medicine and prepared pharmaceutical products
AlAbdulrahman NH, Aleneze MF, Alunaizan AH, Tawfik K, Kefiri G
Introduction: Folk or traditional medicine comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. This research aimed to prepare a cream from dried plant products. Selection of the herbs was based on availability and cost.

Materials and Methods: Ajwain, liquorice, comfrey, green tea and mentha were extracted using the part rich in active constituents with appropriate solvents for each with Soxhlet apparatus. The dried extracts were mixed in different proportions with tea tree oil to prepare different cream formula. All formulas have been tested against some pathogenic microorganisms.

Results: The prepared creams guarantee better application, spread-ability and thus efficacy for each particular application. Three out of seven prepared formulas showed remarkable inhibition of the growth of tested microbes in vitro.

Conclusion: Commonly available herbs could be processed by pharmacists to be a new product in the pharmaceutical market if they were prepared in the appropriate combination and dosage that allow better skin contact and spread-ability.
F30 - The activity of different Types of natural Honey against wide varieties of Microbial isolates in Saudi Arabia
Ojaym AA, AlShammari R, AlShammari D, Kefri G, Ali MS
Background: The incidences of Microbial infections are escalating worldwide. The serious nature of this infection is compounded by increasing level of resistance. This study aimed to investigate the activity of honey to words pathogens when grown in media

Material and Method: Nine strains of bacterial isolates & one strain of fungal spp. were isolated into suitable media growth for each strain .Seven samples of pure Saudi honey were add to media after inoculation

Results: The highest percentage to antibacterial activity recorded for Mountain ziziphues (Sider-7 ), it was 95%, Majra Nafud honey -6 was 85%, Saudi acacia honey -5 was 70%, Majra Nafud honey (local stream tree honey-4 ) was 65% while the latest percentage to antibacterial activity was recorded for Cotton flower honey was 20% . On other hand, marked variations of antibacterial activity of all honey samples .were observed the highest zone diameter inhibition for Sider honey consist of (0-40 mm) and lowest zone was marked for Cotton flower honey (0-30 mm ).

Conclusion: Honey has antibacterial activities by prevent and inhibit growth of the isolates, when it was added to growth culture and Sider honey was marked more potent sample
Female Abstract | Nursing
F24 - A study to assess the Transitional Shock among Newly Qualified Staff Nurses at Selected Hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Aims: This research explores the challenges that new nursing graduates experience whilst adapting to their new role in their first year of practice. These challenges are presented from the perspectives of Graduate Nurse Program Coordinators in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, previously not described in the literature.

Methods: This descriptive qualitative study used individual, semi-structured interviews to access information and perceptions from 58 Graduate Nurse Program about the challenges experienced by nursing graduates in their first year of practice. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to reveal reoccurring themes and sub-themes.

Results: The Questionnaire provided an insight into various challenges that nursing graduates experience in relation to role adaptation in their first year of practice. Nursing graduates found difficulties with reality shock, work-life balancing and having unrealistic assumptions in their capacity to work, assuming they should be at a higher level despite being a beginner practitioner. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for education providers to maintain currency in their undergraduate nursing programs.
F25 - Effects of Social Networks on Social Life of Undergraduate Students
MOHAMED W*., Almowail, A*., ALmatr M., alzaher F., Alabbas Z., Almotawa R., Alkwite J., Alshrahele N.
Aim: This study examined the influence of social media on study habits of undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: The research design used was qualitative design. Approach for data collection involving demographic data and questionnaire administration. Uses and gratification theory was used to guide this study. This theory posits that users of any media are not passive audience but rather active and always make choices for particular media consumption based on their motivations.

Results: The results revealed that many students’ use social media especially face book, Whatsapp and Twitter that they spend increasing amount of quality time on these networks even during lecture hours. Findings of this study suggest that social media could negatively impact on the students’ study behavior, academic progress and that timed-off software should be installed to control its use by students.

Conclusion: This study will be of immense benefit to the university administration as it has shown the potent dangers of uncontrolled use of these social media by students.
Female Abstract | Nursing
F26 - Nurses Perceptions How Physical Environment Affects Medication Errors In Acute Care Settings
Background: Nurses are the one who are close with patients. Medication administration is a part of the nurses’ responsibility in order to make sure clients get the correct medication as supposed.

Objectives: This study is based on a study that examined the nurses' perception of how the physical environment in hospitals affects medication errors.

Method: Data for this study were obtained through a cross sectional survey with nursing staff members in Riyadh city in 2015. This study received a human subject approval and review boards of the hospital under study. Questionnaire administered to nursing staff focused on nursing unit design, medication room, perceived errors and adverse events, and demographic information.

Result and Conclusion: A total of 150 respondents completed the questionnaire for respond rate 100%. The respondents’ level of knowledge regarding medication was good. Most respondents are female (n= 139, 92.7%). Most respondents fell within the age range of 20-29 (n= 86, 57.3%). Regarding job designation, most of the respondents were staff nurses (n 89, 59.3%) followed by charge nurse (n= 61, 49.7%). Most nurses have been working in their place of employment (52.7%) Years of clinical experience since graduation 6-10 years.
Female Abstract | Post Graduate
F31 - Comparison of the Arabic version two early childhood OHRQoL Measures
AlQabbani H, Pani SC
Objectives: Comparison of the accuracy of the validated SOHO-5 to a previously validated version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS).

Methods: Parents of preschool children between the age of 4 and 6 years in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were asked to answer Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) questionnaire (ECOHIS or SOHO-5). The number of decayed, missed, and filled deciduous tooth surfaces (dmfs) served as the measure to determine content and construct validity.

Results: Independent samples t-test revealed no statistically significant relationship between SOHO-5, ECOHIS, and dmfs with gender (p>0.05). Pearson’s correlation revealed a statistically significant (p<0.05) positive relation between SOHO5 and ECOHIS, SOHO5 and dmfs, and ECOHIS and dmfs. Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency reliability on SOHO5 and ECOHIS was 0.756 and 0.747 respectively.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the reliability and validity of Arabic versions of SOHO-5 and ECOHIS to assess OHRQoL measures.
F32 - A Comparison between the Thermal Changes among Four Different Interproximal Reduction Systems in Orthodontics
Omer A, AlSanea J
Objective: To measure the temperature changes in the pulp chamber when different stripping tools with different speeds were used with and without cooling.

Materials and Methods: Hundred and thirty, freshly extracted human premolars teeth were used in this study. The teeth were separated into 10 groups of 13 teeth each. The stripping procedures were performed using four Diamond tools (Burs with high speed Handpeice, Discs with low speed Handpeice, reciprocating saw with micro-motor and manual strip)

Results: There is highly statistically significant difference in the mean ranks of temperature values among the 4 groups with different levels speed. Among the 10 categories of speed of 4 groups the temperature of the higher both (high speed and low speed) are statistically significantly higher than the temperature values of other levels of speed (p<0.001). all recorded temperatures were below the critical temperature 5.5 Cº registered.

Conclusion: Different ranges of speeds with different tools used to perform interproximal reduction procedure showed statistical significant changes in pulp temperature among the 4 groups
Female Abstract | Post Graduate
F33 - Marginal Fit of All Ceramic Crowns Fabricated with CAD/CAM Using two optical Scanning Systems in Comparison with the Conventional Techniques
AlBaker F, AlQahtani F, Fakiha Z
Purpose of the study: to compare the marginal fit of all Ceramic Monolithic e max LD crowns milled by CAD/CAM machine using two optical scanning system ( Cerec and Trios )

Materials and Methods: using Cr-Co metal die of typodent tooth #46 , as a master model. Control group (Cn) is all pressed ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional impression technique.Two test groups according to intra oral scanner used (Cerec / Trios), each test group divided according to digital impression technique to 2 subgroup (scan the master tooth / scan the cast)Each group with 20 crowns.

Result: There is a statistical significant different between Trios mater and Trios cast digital group (p = 0.720)

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study both the pressed ceramic crowns with conventional impression technique and the CAD/CAM crowns with digital impression technique had clinically acceptable marginal accuracy.CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with digital impressions were found to produce better marginal accuracy.
F34 - Influence of Different Cement Lute and Thermocycling on the Flexure Strength of a Porcelain Laminate Veneering Material
AlDoigi I, AlQahtani F
Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the flexural strength of porcelain laminate veneers “PLVs” with six resin cements: three are dual curing and three are light curing materials, after being subjected to Artificial Accelerated Aging ‘AAA’

Materials and Methods: 80-disc-shaped specimens of A1 shade were prepared from lithium disilicate glass-ceramic blocks (IPS e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) prepared using CAD/CAM technology. The specimens were prepared with a 0.5-mm thickness &10 mm diameter.. The specimens were divided into 8 groups, 10 specimens for each group. Two control group without cement, one of them subjected to AAA. Three dual-cured and three light-cured resin cement systems from different manufacturers were chosen for cementation. The specimens were subjected to AAA using an Atlas UV 2000 test machine.

Results: The Significantly higher flexural strength was found in group A1 (286.8 ± 53.7 GIc) and the lowest was recorded in group A1 (151.8 ± 8.9 GIc). Conclusion:AAA had a significant effect in the flexural strength of the tested specimens than resin cements used.
Female Abstract | Post Graduate
F35 - Efficacy of Two Different Oral Hygiene Regimens on the Incidence and Severity of Oral Mucositis– A Randomized Controlled Trial
Mubaraki SA, AlKhayal Z, Pani SC
Background and Objective: The objective of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of the addition of supersaturated calcium phosphate oral spray and the addition of an extra soft tooth brush to the basic OH in addition to the currently existing oral hygiene protocol

Methodology: 45 patients receiving chemotherapy for HCT were randomly allocated to three groups of 15 patients each. Group A receive 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 3%Sodium Bicarbonate mouth wash Nystatin 100000 U/ml: Group B: extra soft brush added to 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 3% Sodium Bicarbonate mouth wash Nystatin 100000 U/ml Group C: Supersaturated calcium phosphate oral spray added to 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 3% Sodium Bicarbonate mouth wash Nystatin 100000 U/ml.

Results and Conclusion: The results of the study showed no significant difference in the incidence of mucositis between the groups however there was a significantly lower severity of mucositis in both the intervention groups. While the group of supersaturated calcium phosphate spray showed lower severity of oral mucositis.
F36 - Influence of Activation Mode of Resin Cement on the Shade of Porcelain Laminate Veneers After Accelerated Aging: In Vitro Study
AlMutairi M, AlQahtani F
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different and new resin cements in the color stability of laminate veneers prior and after ageing.

Material and Methods: 70 disc-shaped specimens of B1 shades from IPS e.max CAD lithium disilicate blocks( Ivoclar Vivadent) were randomly divided in to seven group of ten specimens for each group three dual-cured and three light-cured resin cement systems from different manufacturers were chosen for cementation . Group I (n=10) were had RelyXTM Ultimate,Group II (n=10) were had RelyXTM Veneer, Group III (n=10) were had RelyXTM Unicem, Group VI (n=10) were had Variolink Veneer, Group V (n=10) were had Variolink Esthetic LC , Group VI (n=10) were had Variolink Esthetic DC and group VII (n=10)control group.

Result and Conclusion: The dual-polymerizing cement had the highest color variation among all luting agents. There is significant differences were found in color variation among the dual-polymerizing material. Variations in L*, a*, and b* coordinates were material dependent.

Female Abstract
Combined Pharmacotherapy and Behavioral Alteration for Smoking Cessation
Binyahya FA, Alqabbaa LM, Alansary RD, Alrumaih AS, Kamel AMF*
Background and Aim: According to the American Lung Association smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States (US), causing over 438,000 deaths per year. Also, according to the United Kingdom (UK) Public Health Association; nearly 1 in 5 adults smoke and there are around 90,000 regular smokers aged between 11 and 15. Smoking causes 17% of all deaths in people aged 35 and over.  It can cause or make worse a wide range of damaging health effects in children and adults, including lung cancer, respiratory infections and asthma. After all of these statistics, finding an effective smoking cessation program is very mandatory in order to reach a world free of smoking.

Methodology: Prior to the selection of the program, more than 30 recent articles have reviewed. The U.S Public Health Services, and UK Public Health Association protocols and recommendations were also reviewed. The tobacco Control Program of Saudi Ministry of Health was consulted for the most followed programs as well as smokers obligations and the available medications in Saudi Arabia.

Results and Conclusion: A simple and effective smoking cessation program is presented. It comprises both Pharmacotherapy and Behavioral Alterations.
Assessment of Stability and Antibacterial Efficiency, of Selected Preservatives in Foodstuffs from Saudi Market in Riyadh City
Dalia sharaf eldin, ,Zuhour.I, Manal Basher, HanadiAnklis, NoufAlSadoun , Mai Alyabis, YusraAlkamali. HananAlgarni. OhoudAlshammari. HayaAlmylahi. MarwaArnous
Background: The food industry is experiencing an alarming number of major product recalls due to microbial contamination. In recent years, food safety has become a global concern affecting public health, economics, and international trade in respect to the amount and stability of the used preservatives.

Aims: To ensure that, the food stuffs comply the safe measures for the consumer regarding the microbial bio burden, and correlate it to the concentration and stability of the preservative during the period of usage.

Materials and Methods: 30 food samples will be subjected to both microbiological cultivation for detection of:E.coli, S.aureus, S.typhymerium, C.botulinum, B.cereus, yeast and Fungion Muller Hinton Agar, Mannitol salt agar, Thioglycollate broth and sabaroud agar, if growth detected the number of CFU will be determined and to a simple and sensitive Ultraviolet spectroscopic method for the determination of amounts of preservatives in food samples has been used, The absorbance intensity was measured in 5-mm quartz at wavelengths of ( 243 ) ,( 255) nm, ,( 258) nm and ( 258 ) Benzoic acid, Sorbic acid, Methylparaben and Propyl paraben,respectively, the stability of the preservatives was determined accordingly
Female Abstract
Social media for Teaching and Learning, students perceptions in Riyadh Colleges
Alshammery D. AlAuati R
Abstract: Background: Over the years it has become increasingly important for those of us working in higher education to explore the exciting opportunities new technologies bring to institutions, educators and students. Social media considered one of the important tools in technology, the aim of this study to evaluate the perceptions of the students in Riyadh colleges toward social media.

Material and Method: A total of 170 students in L9 who finished the orthodontic course 512ortho ,the course include the use of social media (twitter) in teaching, Hashtag about the course #512Ortho was developed by the course Director , a questions was posted in the Hashtag and the students were divided in multiple groups and each group has one representative student to participate in the hashtag and answering the question, the best and correct answer was chosen by the faculty and announced in the class. After finishing the course an online survey was developed to take the feedback of the students toward this technology

Result: 70% of the students they liked the use of social media during learning and they want to use it again.

Conclusion: Social media can be very effective method for teaching and learning
Career and postgraduate Education preference of Dental Students in Saudi Arabia (Cross – Sectional study)
Maha AlAseeri; Mohammed AlTurki; Deema AlShammery
Aim of the study: to identify career and postgraduate Education preference among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia.

Material and Method: Online survey was developed using surveymonky.com

Results: Total number of 600 students participated in this study from multiple dental schools in Saudi Arabia,40% of the respondent were from RCsDP,21% from KKU, 20 % from KSU , and the remaining from multiple dental colleges in the kingdom. Gender:69% of the respondent where female and 31% male. The most preference specialty was orthodontics 34%, followed by restorative Dentistry 25%, and the least preferred specialty was oral radiology.

Conclusion: Orthodontic is the most preferred specialty among the undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia
Female Abstract
Dental anxiety among patients undergoing various dental treatments in RCsDP
Ansari SH, Abdulwahid A, Albader F, Bumijdad F, Alshaks N, Almubarak B, Alkhars Z, Alalwan S, Alkhalaf Z.
Introduction: Dental patients are prone to have stress related to dental treatment. This anxiety is not just linked with the younger age group, but with older aged people as well. There is a slight demarcation between anxiety and fear. Anxiety is anticipatory and grows with time specially before visiting a dentist (Weiner, 1980). A distinct improvement in the provision of dental treatment facilities has been observed in Saudi Arabia especially in the last couple of decades, yet there isn’t much of a change in the oral health condition of Saudi people. This lack of improvement can be seen as a consequence of dental treatment anxiety among majority of the people (Hmud and Walsh, 2009).

Previous studies have highlighted the key points related to dental anxiety, which include high percentage of young female patients to be more stressed and anxious as compared to others. On the other hand, some patients related their anxiety to the high cost of treatment. Anxiety among these patients leads to ineffective provision of dental care to a big percentage of patients resulting in poor oral health (Dickinson &Whelton, 2012). Dental anxiety among children is seen to be of great concern and has played a vital role in incomplete provision of dental care. It is very important for the dentist to help a child overcome the fear in the beginning;otherwise it will be difficult for the dentist to provide quality and successful dental treatment (Mungara et al, 2013)

Dental anxiety prevails among all age groups but it is quite common among the teenagers. One of the studies done in Norway suggested that a majority of teenagers had either cancelled their appointments or deliberately missed them. Therefore, proving a higher incidence of dental anxiety among young patients (Skaret et al, 1999).

Materials and Methods: A closed ended questionnaire was used to assess the extent of anxiety among dental patients visiting Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy. Response from 496 patients was recorded in both Namuthajiya and Muneseya campuses. The responses were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The duration of research was two months. Our aim was to target all age groups, nationalities and both genders in order to retrieve a comprehensive data.
Female Abstract
Factors that influence dental students’ post graduate career decision: A survey done in Riyadh colleges
Fahad Ali AlMasradi, Abdulaziz Alshahrani, Abdulelah Alshahrani, Sulaiman Almusalam
Abstract: Dentistry provides a range of career and business opportunities, with career opportunities as a general practitioner as well as a specialist. The recognized specialties are oral medicine and radiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral pathology, prosthodontics, orthodontics, preventive and community dentistry, pedodontics, periodontics, and conservative dentistry and endodontics (Gallagher et al., 2007)

Aim: This study was to compare the career preferences and reasons behind them between male and female dental students as well as multi-level students.

Result: A total number of 337 male and female students were used as the research subjects. This study was designed to investigate the future preferences of dental students of RCsDP. It was interesting to observe the change in choices of male and female dental students throughout their academic years, better job options seem to be the most prominent reason behind the selection of specialty
Impact of removable dentures on oral health-related quality of life among elderly
Background: Oral health is an important part of well-being, and oral health-related quality of life should be emphasized when providing dental care to elderly people

Aim: To evaluate the relationship between denture wearing and oral health related quality of life in a sample of elderly patients by using Arabic version of Geriatric Oral health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Ar)

Study Population and Methods: A Sample of 150 elderly patients wearing removable and implant supported dentures, aged between 50-85 years, reporting various prosthodontic clinics of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (Annamuthajiya, Olaya, and Munasiya) and Prince Sultan Military medical city were selected by employing convenient sampling methodology...

Results: Total of 150 patients (male=84, female=66) participated in the study having mean age of 62.43±9.43 (50-85). Oral health related quality of life, as measured by mean scores of GOHAI- T was 23.49±.66, Pain or discomfort was 4.73±.21, Physical function 8.11±.31, and Psychological function score was 10.63±.35. Age, remaining natural teeth did not show any significant correlation with GOHAI-T and any of the components of GOHAI. However, Overall denture related factor score was significantly correlated with the GOHAI-T and other component scores, p<0.05. Of the denture related factors, oral ulcer, bad breath and dry mouth were significantly correlated with physical and psychological functions, pain and discomforts and GOHAI T score p<0.05...
Female Abstract (Additional)
Awareness and knowledge of neurological complications while administering local anesthesia among dental students of Riyadh
Ansari SH, Shaikh SP, Aboras H, Al-Ali N, Al-Omair T, Alasmari A, Aljrais M, Alrizqi M, Alarnous N.
Introduction: The history of regional anesthesia and pain management is filled with fabulous stories and great characters. Ancient Egyptians used a variety of analgesics including scopolamine, opium poppy, beer, juniper, and yeast to treat a variety of ailments. Local anesthesia in dentistry involves the injection or application of an anesthetic drug to peripheral nerves which supply the entire oral cavity. These medicines are given by injection to numb and provide pain relief to some part of the body dental procedures. Consequences of misdirected needle placement include facial paralysis, inferior alveolar and lingual nerve paresthesia (transient or permanent) and muscle trismus among others. Neurological complications following the administration of a local anesthetic should be kept in mind

Aim of the Study: Aim of this study is to make sure that the dental professionals and students are aware of the complications which may occur to their patients and act accordingly in this situation. Examples of complications covered are facial nerve palsy, transient amaurosis, post-injection paraesthesia, Horner's syndrome, transient paralysis of combined cranial nerves III, IV and VI, sudden unilateral deafness and abducens nerve palsy.

Materials and Methods: A well designed questionnaire was used to collect data from 418 dental students from various dental schools of Riyadh. The data was then subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. Responses were retrieved from undergraduate final year students, dental interns, general practitioners and specialists. The questionnaire included the questions related to the knowledge regarding facial palsy, total body hemiparesis, deafness, post injection paresthesia, orofacial pain as well as other related complications. The surveys were collected from Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy and private dental clinics in Riyadh city.

Results: A total number of 450 questionnaires were sent to various departments of dental schools in Riyadh. The response rate was 92% with 418 questionnaires successfully returned. Male participants were 59% whereas 41% were females. We requested the participation of final year undergraduate students, interns, general practitioners and specialists.